Technology Costs, Benefits, Choices: Energy (B- Billion Years; M - Million Years)


-15B Big Bang; -4.5B Earth to 6B; -600M Earth Life, 2.5M Humans; Plate techtonics; Life on Earth; -1M Fire, -.5M Fire control; -3000 Fertile Crescent


-8000 Domestication of Animals for work, transport, food; -2000 Egypt Irrigation; --1000 Water lifting; Aswan Dam at Pilae; -1500 Wind for sails on seas


Energy Flows in Climate System; Sunand other energy- renewable and fossil; 60 Hero and steam engine for toy; wind for organ


Roman gearing and waterwheel for for sawmill; Windmills varients since 400; Greek to 1500-1700 Astronomers, Scientists; 1769+Boulton, Watt, Murdoch




1705 Newcom steam engine; 1769 Watt steam enhancements; 1820's Baltimore gass street lights; 1800's Gas from coal



Electiricy: 1800 Volta battery; 1831 Faraday induction ring; 1832 electromagnetism; 1859 Drake oil well; Petroleum refining 1870 Rockefeller oil monopoly


Edison : 1877 phonograph, 1878 electric light; 1890's electric generation and distribution; 1887 Tesla AC induction, Westinghouse, 1893 Chicago fair



Electirc industry: Niagara Falls, Niagara power station, General Electric; 1901 Marconi wireless UK-Newfoundland; 1901 Spindletop E Texas oil


1905 Einstein Relativity; 1936 Houdry Catalytic cracking; 1934 Fermi nuclear fission, 1945+ nuclear bomb; 1945 Shasta Dam; 1951 Nuclear electricity Diablo


1950's Natural Gas pipelines, home heating; 1960's Offshore oil; 1970's Iran Shah OPEC; 1990 US Electric Grid; Wind farm, offshore, tidal energy


2000's: Solar thermal; Solar photovoltaic; Algae biofuel; Energy supply, demand Shale fracking oil, gas;


2010 Energy Conservation Home: Laundry, Lighting; TV, electronics; 2015 Energy Used, Unused; Electric , Hydrogen fueled cars