Technology Costs, Benefits, Choices: Transportation


-2,000,000 humans walk upright; -4000 Yoke for oxen; -3200 Progress to wheel; -3000+ Progress of wheel for transport


-3000 Hollow log boat river gravity transport; -1500 Phoenician sail and oar for sea navigation; -35,000 Horse riding Europe cave paintings; -400 China horse collar


60 Hero of Alexandria steam engine toy and car design; 1415+ Caravels Astrolabe, Compass, Quadrant; 1769 Cugenot Steam Automobile

1700's Transportation change Industrial Revolution; 1804 Trevithick steam engine on rails; Transport revolution; 1803 Robert Fulton steamship Clermont


1814+ Steamships on Mississippi; 1820-25 Erie Canal from Buffalo to Hudson River; 1821-40 Other Canals mostly unprofitable


1825 George and son Robert Stephenson and Rocket engine; 1830 Tom Thumb 1st US made engine; 1831 Baldwin Locomotive; US railway growth 1828-60

1840's Yankee Clippers from New England-California-Far East; 1820's Smith and Walker trails to California; 1838-54 Fremont West Trails; 1850 Trails West


1843+ Wagon trains west along Oregon and California trails; Typical Prairie Schooner family wagon luggage and configuration


Wagon maker Studebaker joins California Gold Rush, works as Placerville blacksmith, returns east to head only firm to go from wagons to auto success



1860-61 Pony Express St. Jo-Sacramento; Theodore Juddah RR over Sierra plan; 1870 Sacramento; Central Pacific Big 4; 1869Promentory final spike

1870's California stage coaches; 1890's Henry Ford works for Edison; 1904 Ford quadricycle; 1905-33 LA Red line electric transit system


1910 Long Beach air show; 1915 Flying circus Beachey at SF Fair; 1913 Henry Ford Model T assembly line; Edison-Ford electric plans





1930's PanAm Transpacific routes from SF Treasure Island; 1935 Douglas DC-3 dominates US airlines C47 WWII military transport


1934 Harry Bridges SF port strike, John L Lewis 1940's coal strikes; 1956 Containerization end SF port; 1956 Interstate highways, decline of railroads


1925-69 Juan Trippe and PanAm lead international air transport; 1969 Boeing 747 PanAm launch; 1975 Beyer, 1978 Kahn deregulation; Time airline change


1973 Catalytic converters to curtail air pollution; 1978Mileage requirements to 1970's OPEC shocks; 2002+ Zipcar; 2000+ Bike share

2005+ Prius hybrid, auto fuel; 2010+ Uber growth; Microtransit-Chariot San Francisco; SF Tech buses; Energy loss to use


2010 Tesla, Leaf, Volt electric car growth; 2016 Fuel cell hydrogen cars; 2020's Driverless cars

2015+ Surface transport infrastructure needing enormous deferred maintenance regardless of transport and fuel options