Technology Costs, Benefits, Choices: Health

(Excluding Energy, Transport, Food Technologies)


1638 William Harvey circulation; Leeuwenhoek living organisms in microscope; Priestly oxygen, nitrous oxide; Vaccine pioneers, milestones


1865-2003 Timeline Mendel genetics to biotech


1846 Lister antiseptic surgery; 1870+ Pasteur microbiology pioneer; 1895 X Ray imaging; 1897 Hoffman Bayer aspirin


1907 Ehrlich, Domagk chemotherapy pioneers, 1896 Duchesne, 1928 Fleming penicillin; 1951 Djerassi, Pincus birth control pill; 1960's hormonal contraceptives


1956 Salk, Sabin polio vaccine, controversy; 1965 Ultrasound; 1972 CAT scan, 1977 MRI; 1974 Anderson Medtronic's Pacemaker


1976 Swanson and Boyer found Genentech; 1992 In vitro fertilization; 1998 Stem cell therapy



2009 Affordable Care Act; 2000 Venter Celera Genomics and NIH human genome decoding; 2002-15 CRISP developed; 2015 Time annual health issue

2013-15 Drug price spikes; 2015 Gilead Hepatitis C protests; Hepatitis C price and production costs