Invention, Discovery, Event
Electricity 1752 Franklin Ben Lightning experiments, charge conservation, static, Gulf Stream current mapping
Electricity 1752 Franklin P-Experiments Lightning rod, sharp end concentration
Electricity 1820 F-&Magnetism Gilbert, Gray, Du Fay, Leiden, Coulomb, Oersted, Galvani, Volta, Ampere, Arago, Faraday, Henry, Maxwell, Morse, Swan
Electricity 1820 Orstead Hans Current measure, ammeter, eltromagnetism, inspires Schweigger galvanometer, Faraday
Electricity 1825 Faraday P-Michael Chemist and benezene to electricity from 1830
Electricity 1827 Ohm George Current equals ratio of voltage to resistance: Ohm's Law
Electricity 1831 Faraday Michael Electromagnetic induction leads to Dcgenerator (dynamo)
Electricity 1832 Pixii Hippolyte Magneto electric AC generator, Henry inductance
Electricity 1835 Henry Joseph Develops telegraph principles
Electricity 1837 Morse Samuel FB Patents electromagnetic transmitting telegraph with Morse code dots and dashes, also UK, Germ
Electricity 1839 Grove Rogert First fuel cell, electricity from H2 and O2, costly incandescent platinum lightbulb in 1840
Electricity 1844 Telegraph F-Sum Gauss,Weber, Wheatstone, Steinheil, Morse, Henry, Vail
Electricity 1857 Siemens Werner Shuttle winding for armature of elec generator dynamo without magnets
Electricity 1866 Field Cyrus Successful trans Atlantic cable after 1858 break
Electricity 1866 Leclanche Georges Fr zinc carbon battery, precursor to dry cell, flashlight battery
Electricity 1867 Varley Cromwell Magnet not needed to start electric generator
Electricity 1867 Gramme Zenobe Ring armature for 1st practical ac generator
Electricity 1868 Edison P-Thomas voting recorder 1st major invention
Electricity 1877 Gramme Zenobe Alternator based on reversing dynamo. Produces AC, needs brushes, transformer later will mean ac
Electricity 1879 Thomson Elihu Induction coils to step down voltage, increase current, parallel basis of transformer in 6 years
Electricity 1880 Edison Thomas Electric generating station for lighting London, Pearl NY in 1882
Electricity 1884 Tesla P-Nicola Electric alternator
Electricity 1887 Tesla Nicola AC induction motor and transformer, power lines, generator system
Electricity 1891 Tesla Nicola High voltage coil
Electricity 1891 Blondell Andre Oscilloscope
Electricity 1893 Westinghouse George Takes ac to CGO fair, begins dominance
Electricity 1893 Steinmetz Charles Clear theory of AC
Electricity 1895 Westinghouse George Niagara ac power stations, Buffalo elect, industry supply
Electricity 1902 Bosch Robert Spark plug
Electricity 1908 Edison Thomas Nickel alkaline battery with lithium hydroxide for autos
Electricity 1965 Canda Hydroplant Fau+F566lty relay starts chain reaction and NE blackout Nov9
Electricity 1971 USSR MHD magnetohydrodynamic electricity generation from natural gas
Electricity 1972 Germany Coal gasification for electricity
Electricity 1989 Alternative Energy F-Sum Global warm, greenhouse gas, nuclear, hydro, wind, solar, geo, tides,
Electricity 2003 Solar cells with efficiency up to 20%
Electricity 2003 US Sandia thermonuclear fusion with x ray blast at deuterium capsule
Heat 1842 F-Heat Nature Bacon, Hooke, Descartes, Mayer, Rumford, Carnot, Clapeyron, Prescott, Joule
Light 1803 Murdoch William Coal gas to light building, Murdoch 1792 discovery
Light 1879 Edison Thomas Practical lasting carbon thread electric lamps, Swan in UK
Light 1879 Brush Charles Cleveland carbon-arc lighting
Light 1879 Lights&Lighting F-Summary Davy arc light, Swan Edison filament lamp,
Light 1894 Edison Thomas Carbon filaments from squirted cellulose for bulbs, Swan too
Light 1910 Claude Georges Neon light FR
Light 1953 Townes Charles Maser developed, leads to laser
Light 1958 Townes Schawlow Show maser can be applied to light, laser in 1960
Light 1962 Nathan Marshall IBM semiconductor p-n junction lasers, same principle as transitor, laser used in eye surgery
Light 1971 Ferguson James Intl Liquid Xtal develop twisted nematic liquid crystal, 1st in watch display
Light 1973 Bell Labs Tunable continuous wave laser
Light 1976 Madey John FEL Free electron laser, photon stimulation
Light 1981 3M Optical disk recording by lasers, solve melt and chemical change problems
Tel 1872 Gray Elisha Western Electric founded to make telephone equipment
Tel 1874 Bell Alexander Harmonic telegraph transmits harmonic musical tones, similar to Gray's
Tel 1874 Edison Thomas Two messages over one telegraph line
Tel 1876 Bell F-Alexander Telephone patent, receiver & transmitter solenoid close to iron membrane, vibrations induce current
Tel 1876 Gray Elisha Files another tel design within hours of Bell, probably better, but courts say Bell inventor
Tel 1877 Edison Thomas Halloo into phonograph of diaphragm to needle tracing groove in wax or alaum foil rotating disk
Tel 1878 Crookes William TV via electric thru glass tube, Paiva wire concept for TV
Tel 1880 Bell Alexander Picturephone patent virating mirror, sound transmission by light
Tel 1887 Western Union Multiplexing on telephone lines by using different frequencies
Tel 1891 Brown Almon Telephone switching system without operator
Tel 1898 Poulsen Valdemar Telegraphone magnetic recording for data, forerunner of answering machine
Tel 1911 AmBell WesternElectric Merge engineering to Bell Labs
Tel 1932 Marconi Guglielmo Microwaves detected, radar decade later
Tel 1945 Clarke Arthur Geosynchronous satallite proposal, become telcom in 1965, TV later
Tel 1954 Kipany Narinder Optical glass fiber for light transmission without intensity loss
Tel 1958 Bell Dataphone for transmitting binary by telephone
Tel 1960 Baran Paul Rand researcher develops packet switching principle to interchange computer data in discrete bundles
Tel 1962 Bell Telstar 1st comsat, relays transatlantic TV
Tel 1964 Lucky Robert Equalizer eliminates tel echos, speeds data transfer
Tel 1966 Davies Donald Packet switching approach independent of Baran
Tel 1973 Metcalfe Robert Ethernet where data transmitted in packets
Tel 1977 GTE Optical fibers used for telephone calls
Tel 1978 TCP/IP transmission control protocol internet protocol adopted
Tel 1979 Hayes Modem to connect computer to phone line
Tel 1983 Cellular Telephone By 1987 312 systems in 215 US cities
Tel 1988 LightCommunications F-Sum Bell, Wheeler, French, Kell, Sziklai, Kao, Hockham, coaxial to fiber
Tel 1992 AT&T Videophone $1500, call price unchanged