Invention, Discovery, Event
BioTech 1944 Avery P-Oswald DNA not protein agent of heredity, work extended Griffith transforming substance
BioTech 1953 DNA F-Sum Mendel, Fleming, Miescher, Morgan, Weismann, Levene, Avery, Pauling, Corey, Wilkins, Franklin, Stokes
BioTech 1953 Crick P-Watson DNA based on X ray diffraction to postulate and work out double helix
BioTech 1973 Wilmut Ian Frosty calf from frozen sperm
BioTech 1974 Genetic Engineering F-Sum Watson-Crick, Lederberg, Hayes, Delbruck, Hershey, Beckwith, Cohen, Boyer,
BioTech 1976 Swanson Boyer Genentech venture funded genetic engineering for commercial products
BioTech 1980 Genentech Human insulin synthesized
BioTech 1983 Copy DNA F-Sum Mullis, Cetus, PCR
Biotech 1995 Venter F-Craig Genome of living organism, completed human genome draft in 2001
BioTech 1996 Rosetta Impharmatics DNA microarrays or chips
BioTech 1997 Wilmut Ian Dolly 1st mammal clone, Roslin Scotland Institute team
BioTech 1998 University Wisconsin Embryonic stem cells grown in tissue culture
Biotech 2000 Venter US Human genome completed
BioTech 2001 US Stem cell fed funds restricted
Computer 1805 Jaquard Josef Marie Punched card for loom control, computer input in 1950's
Computer 1820 Babbage P-Charles Difference engine to 1832analytical plan with punch card input memory
Computer 1820 Babbage P-Charles Other inventions: Ophthalmoscope, speedometer, skeleton key, cowcatcher
Computer 1836 Bain Alexander Punched paper tape to speed telegraph messages
Computer 1843 Lovelace P-Ada Translated, added notation, predicted future of Babbage Analytic Engine
Computer 1867 Peirce Charles Boolean algebra related to switching circuits, on/off are true/false
Computer 1876 Thomson LordKelvin Analog machine for differential equations, forerunner to Bannevar Bush in 1920's
Computer 1884 Patterson John Buys Ritty rights, forms NCR, sells million registers
Computer 1885 Felt Dorr Comptometer
Computer 1888 Burroughs William Patents adding machine
Computer 1890 Hollerith Herman Punched card input
Computer 1896 Hollerith Herman Name change to IBM
Computer 1901 Hollerith Herman Numerical keyboard for punched cards
Computer 1927 Bush Vannevar Analog computer solves differential equations
Computer 1936 Zuse Konrad Digital computer from electromagnetic relays rather than tubes
Computer 1937 Atanasoff John Conceives electronic computer for linear equation problems
Computer 1937 Stibitz George Binary circuit on boolean algebra to add two binary numbers
Computer 1937 Early digital F-Sum Stibitz, Williams, Zuse, Schreyer, Turing, Atanasoff, Berry, Newman, Flowers, Colossus
Computer 1940 Stiblitz Williams Remote computing via telex NY Dartmouth
Computer 1942 Atanasoff Berry Binary, logic circuitsmemory ABC not completed, ideas passed to ENIAC
Computer 1943 Turing Flowers,Newman Colossus Bechley Park, 1500 tubes, code breaking
Computer 1943 Mauchly Eckert ENIAC design, questionable tube reliability
Computer 1944 Mauchly Eckert Mercury tube for acoustic data memory, magnetized spinning disks for data storage
Computer 1944 First F-Working P-Bush, Mauchly, Eckert, Goldstine, von Neumann,
Computer 1945 Turing vonNeumann ACE in UK, EDVAC Princeton
Computer 1946 Mauchly Eckert ENIAC starts Feb 15, Hopper bug real at first
Computer 1949 Mauchly John Short Code, 1st high level programming language
Computer 1949 Mauchly Eckert BINAC Electronic stored program on magnetic tape
Computer 1951 Hopper Grace Compiler A0, translates program code to binary, also Remington buffer memory
Computer 1953 Forrester Jay Ferrite memory core
Computer 1955 Bell Telephone 1st transistor computer, Gilmore CRT input
Computer 1956 IBM RAMAC hard disk for data storage
Computer 1956 Backus John FORTRAN
Computer 1956 Programs F-Sum Hooper, Aiken, COBOL, BASIC, Kemeny, Kurtz, ALGOL, Pascal, Wirth, JAVA
Computer 1960 Olsen Ken PDP-1 from DEC, keyboard input, monitor, affordable by small business
Computer 1960 Amdahl Gene 360 project launched by IBM
Computer 1960 American Airlines Starts SABRE, online 1962, completed 1965, 1st airline reservation and in real time
Computer 1962 Manchester U UK Atlas I introduces virtual memory, multitasking
Computer 1963 Sutherland Ivan Sketchpad software creation of graphics on video terminal with light pen
Computer 1964 Baran Paul Began distributed network proposal based on packet switching in 1960, plan Arpanet, operational 1969
Computer 1964 Cray Seymour CDC 6600, IBM 360 on market
Computer 1965 Nelson Theodore Hypertext for organizing and linking
Computer 1965 Olsen Ken PDP8 first minicomputer
Computer 1967 Soderblom Olof Network of closed loop rather than centralized, IBM adopts
Computer 1967 Amdahl Gene Parallel processing
Computer 1968 Engelbart Doug PARC developed Mouse, adopted by Apple for Mac
Computer 1969 US Defense ARPANET operational
Computer 1969 Wetzel Donald ATM
Computer 1970 Tomlinson Ray Email program, intorduces @
Computer 1970 Centron Dot matrix printer
Computer 1971 Hott Ted Mazor, Fagin Intel 4004, 1st microprocessor, ic as cpu, 2300 transistors, 7'7mm chip, 4bits/sec
Computer 1971 Boone Cochran TMS 1000 mp, input, memory, cpu, output on 1 chip
Computer 1972 Lexitron Wang VYDEC, Wang with BIM Selectric as printer, 1st word processing, Exxon entry
Computer 1972 Philips laservision disk laser recording system
Computer 1972 Kay Alan SMALLTALK for graphics, includes windows and icons, object oriented language
Computer 1972 Thompson Ritchie ITT Bell Labs C language running under UNIX, replaced in 1977, later C++Bjarne Stroustrup Denmark
Computer 1972 Telenet Tymnet Worldwide timesharing system networks, packet based
Computer 1972 Intel Mark 8 8 b8it mp for 1st PC kits 1974
Computer 1973 Kay Alan ALTO 1st PC at PARC, smalltalk, icons, graphics, mouse, high cost $15,000 PARC
Computer 1974 HP Programmable pocket calculator
Computer 1975 Martins Cox Computer understands voice, replies in synthetic speech
Computer 1975 Gates Allen BASIC for Altair 8800, from H. Ed Roberts kit, 256 bytes mem, toggle input, lights on screen output
Computer 1975 Cooke John IBM mini project 801 based on RISC, 5100PC shelved estim no demand
Computer 1975 ITT Antitrust results in UNIX available to universities for further development
Computer 1976 Shayer Michael Word processing for Altair
Computer 1976 Wozniak Steve Apple I 4k RAM, Motorola 6052 mp
Computer 1976 Kildall Gary CP/M from Digital Research 8 bit
Computer 1976 Cray Seymour Cray I vectorial arch supercomputer
Computer 1976 Peddle Chuck Motorola 6502 mp MOS tech, 1/7th Intel 8080 cost, Zilog 8 bit Z80 mp 64K, 2.5mh speed
Computer 1977 Jobs Wozniak Apple II, color TV, 8 slots, best seller until IBM PC in 1981
Computer 1977 Gates Allen Microsoft
Computer 1977 Tandy Commodore PET CP/M PC built in monitor, tape cssettes for data and programs
Computer 1977 HomeComputer F-Sum Intel, Jobs, Wozniak, IBM, clones, PET, Atari, Microsoft, Mac
Computer 1978 Epson Low cost dot matrix
Computer 1978 Barnaby John Wordstar based on CP/M, later DOS
Computer 1978 DEC VAX virtual address extension, 32 bit, tech and science standard
Computer 1979 Bricklin Frankston Visicalc spreadsheet, 1st PC killer ap
Computer 1980 Ratliff Wayne dBase Iifrom JPL Vulcan, electronic filing for PCs
Computer 1981 IBM PC DOS by Microsoft
Computer 1981 Osborne Adam Portable computer CP/M Z80
Computer 1982 Compaq Columbia Compaq successful IBM PC clone, portable too, Bus of IBM doesn't protect
Computer 1984 Apple Macintosh graphics with icons and mouse for GUI
Computer 1984 Brainard Paul Pagemaker desktop publishing
Computer 1984 Microsoft Microsoft Windows for IBM PC like Mac
Computer 1990 HP IBM RISC
Computer 1991 Torvalds Linus Linux
Computer 1994 Sun Java 1st universal software language, any platform
Envir 1907 Cottrell Fred electrostatic precipitator to remove pollution, recover particles
Envir 1914 Manchester UK Sewage plant bacteria treatment
Envir 1931 Dupont GM Kinetic Chemical introduces Freon refrig, spray propellant, later ozone problems
Envir 1939 Muller Paul DDT potent insecticide
Envir 1941 Goodhue Sullivan Bug bomb aerosol containers
Envir 1951 Carson P-Rachel Sea Around Us, Silent Spring in 1960's and DDT
Envir 1952 UK Lazlo Smog London inversion traps coal smoke, kills 4000: LA photochem react of hydrocarbon, NO2
Envir 1955 Johns Manville Asbestos in London factory linked to cancer, lead to 1% or less in US paint
Envir 1961 Industy Cities Acid rain kills lake fish
Envir 1962 Houdry Eugene Patents catalytic muffler to reduce auto pollution
Envir 1972 Club Rome Limits of Growth: disaster if pollution and resource depletion continue
Envir 1972 US Laws UN examine global envir problems, US limits DDT, envir laws
Envir 1973 US EPA Endangered Species lists
Envir 1978 Buffalo NY Love Canal chemical toxins seep into groundwater
Envir 1978 US EPA Chlorfluorcarbons banned in US due to ozone threat
Envir 1980 ThreeMileIs PA Accident ends new nuclear in US
Envir 1984 Bhopal India Union Carbide toxic gas kills over 2000
Envir 1984 US EPA leaded gas ban to save converters, air
Envir 1985 Chernoybl USSR Nuclear failure
Envir 1989 Exxon Valdez Valdez supertanker spill, life threat
Envir 1990 Plastic EPA Biodegradable problem in landfills
Envir 1997 Kyoto Protocol 150 sign greenhouse gas reduction commitment, US doesn't ratify, also Russia Oz
Envir 2000 US NatResearch Global warming threat
Health 1921 Banting P-Fred Insulin
Health 1952 Bell Telephone Transistor hearing aids, Bell waives patents, royalties
Health 1955 Salk F-Jonas Salk vacine for polio
Health 1960 Dow Corning Breast implant silicone, same as Silly Putty
Health 1964 Zenith IC hearing aid
Health 1971 Damadian Raymond MRI to detect tumors
Health 1971 Body Scan F-Sum Superman, Plantes, CAT, CT, PET, NMR, Damadian, MRI
Health 1976 Monoclonal Antibodies F-Sum Milstein, Kohler, immune system, prevent rejection
Health 1977 NY NY cancer Kaposi in NY leads to AIDS ID in 1981
Health 1977 Gruentzig Andreas Balloon angioplasty to unclog blocked arteries
Health 1978 Edwards Steptoe Test tube baby, fiber important to prevent cancer
Health 1983 AIDS F-Sum 500M US death, 25MM world. Africa 30MM of 42MM HIV world
Health 1985 Medtronic Heart defabrillators, laser in arteries
Health 1988 Baulieu Etienne RU-486 abortion pill in use in France
Health 1988 Contact Lens Disposables no cleaning or removal 3-7 days
Health 1992 US FDA Silcone breast transplants suspended
Health 1998 Pfizer Viagra for erectile dysfunction male
Office 1879 Ritty James Ritty Incorruptible Cashier, 1st calculatore, commercial flop
Office 1885 Tainter Charles Dictaphone
Office 1894 Taylor Winslow Time and motion studies to eliminate waste
Office 1914 Boston Wire Sticher Stapler
Office 1971 Haggerty Patrick TI 1st pocket calculatorPocketronic, 1kg,+-*/ only
Tech 1947 Tubes to Chips F-Sum Edison, Fleming, De Forest, Shockley, Bardeen, Brattain, Feynman
Tech 1947 Bardeen Brattain With Shockley supervising, Dec.16 transistor effect, free electrons interact with bound in metal
Tech 1948 Walter William Tortoise, robot precursor
Tech 1954 Teal Gordon TI introduces silicon transistor, cheaper to produce than germanium
Tech 1954 Ford Raytheon Factory automation applied
Tech 1957 Noyce Moore Fairchild formed as Shockley refuses to allow silicon transitor research
Tech 1958 Noyce Kilby Integrated circuit multiple elctronics on silicon chip
Tech 1959 Hoerni Jean Flat planar transistor at Fairchild, Noyce applies to IC production
Tech 1959 Feynman Richard Etch or evaporate materials to make tiny transistors using light or electrons building from atom level
Tech 1961 Chip F-Sum Kilby, Noyce
Tech 1989 Berners-Lee Tim CERN paper on basis for links used on Internet and WWW
Tech 1991 Berners-Lee Tim WWW installed on Internet
Tech 1992 Andressen Marc Mosaic browser to get to 1st websites being developed
Tech 2003 Marks Tobin NU team organic sc based on thiophe, good as silicon base