# Builder Birth Death Summary and Description Sorted By Builder Birth
177 JAMES EADS  Bridge 1820 1887 Shuttled as a boy around the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, he became a self-taught engineer who built structures to traverse, dredge and penetrate great waters. At 22, he invented an underwater salvaging method. In 1867, he helped form the Illinois and St. Louis Bridge Co., becoming its engineer-in-chief. To build the St. Louis Bridge, now the Eads Bridge, he brought from Europe in 1867 the pneumatic-caisson method—and its ailment, the "bends." Despite opposition, he built the South Pass jetty system from New Orleans to the Gulf of Mexico.
117 A. GUSTAVE EIFFEL  Engineer 1832 1923 Before becoming France's leading engineer of wrought iron, Eiffel trained as a chemical engineer, then worked as a railway bridge designer. At a time when many peers denigrated academic research and used trial-and-error to design in iron, he considered calculations essential to achieving more elegant and economical designs. Modern cal- culations jibe with Eiffel's for analyzing stresses in the internal frame he designed for New York's Statue of Liberty in 1879. In 1884, he set a world's record for the longest arch span at France's 165-meter Garabit Viaduct. Paris' 312-m Eiffel Tower set a record for height in 1889. That year, he was indicted for fraud in connection with the Panama Canal fiasco, one of France's biggest financial scandals. His sentence was annulled but his career was ruined.
138 OTTO C. MOHR  Engineer 1835 1918 A century before desktop computers made solving differential equations much easier, a German professor made major contributions to engineering by devising simpler, graphical methods of analysis. In 1882, he described a method for evaluating the combined effects of shears and stresses at one point; "Mohr's Circle" still helps with simple checks of welded gusset plates, for instance. Mohr also presented, in 1860, the first general, three-moments equation for analyzing continuous beams set on unequally high supports. In 1868, he developed the method of "influence lines" to determine the deflection of a loaded beam, without resorting to explicit use of differential equations.
18 WASHINGTON ROEBLING  Bridge 1837 1926 John Roebling designed the Brooklyn Bridge but his son and daughter-in-law got it done in 1883. After John died in 1869, Washington became chief engineer with modesty, physical courage and his father's iron will. Emily took charge of the day-to-day construction when her husband became incapacitated from on-the-job injuries. Perhaps the first woman field engineer, she learned higher mathematics, the calculation of catenary curves, strength of materials, stress analysis, bridge specifications and intricacies of cable construction.
162 FRANCOIS HENNEBIQUE  Concrete 1842 1921 In 1879, he set out to fireproof the iron beams of a house he was building by covering them with concrete. That act led directly to the development of a structural building system where the iron carried tension and the concrete carried compression. Hennebique also built his first reinforced floor slabs in 1879. In 1892, he patented a building system using reinforced structural beams, presaging the use of reinforced concrete. Because of the efficiency and economy that reinforced concrete offered compared to stone, by 1902 he had created a total of 7,026 bridges, factories, municipal buildings and water towers constructed with reinforced concrete.
87 CHARLES F. MCKIM  Architect 1847 1909 Elegance, monumentality and ornamentation mark the American Renaissance Revival and neoclassical-style buildings of McKim, a partner in McKim, Mead and White, the most prominent architectural firm in New York City around the turn of the century. Treasured landmarks built by the firm include the Boston Public Library and Manhattan's Metropolitan Museum of Art, University Club and Pierpont Morgan Library. The success of the firm is attributed to McKim's idealism, Mead's pragmatism and White's sensualism.
159 THOMAS A. EDISON  Energy 1847 1931 After inventing the incandescent lamp, Edison became the world's first engineer-procure-construct turnkey power systems contractor to provide a market for the lamp. The Thomas A. Edison Construction Dept., under the inventor's close supervision, engineered and built 12 complete small-town systems by 1884, two years after New York City's Pearl Street Station entered service as the first U.S. powerplant. He also took the lead in training electrical engineers for the nascent industry through classes in the Construction Dept.
21 JOHN F. STEVENS  Water 1853 1943 A rough-hewn outdoorsman, he didn't need a college education to create a well-organized system to get the Panama Canal construction on track. Refusing to bow to public pressure, Stevens spent two years methodically building the infrastructure needed to stage the Panama Canal work. By early 1907 when digging resumed, workers were excavating 500,000 cu yd of soil a month. Stevens convinced President Roosevelt that building a canal with locks was more feasible than a sea-level canal. But tough as he was, Stevens began to crack under the pressure; he accused bureaucrats and politicians of stabbing him in the back and complaining that, "to me, the canal is only a big ditch." In 1917, President Wilson sent him to Russia to reorganize the Trans-Siberian Railway project.
14 WILLIAM MULHOLLAND  Water 1855 1935 A tragic figure, the greatest water engineer of the early 20th Century transformed a minor city of 250,000 into the nation's second-largest city by building the first aqueduct comparable in length to that of ancient Rome's. A pioneer in tunneling, the self-taught Mulholland completed the 233-mile Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913. He was the first U.S. engineer to make practical use of hydraulic sluicing and first to make major use of hydroelectric power in construction. In 1924, as he unknowingly built St. Francis Dam on an ancient landslide, ranchers began dynamiting the aqueduct. In 1928, the dam burst, killing some 450 people. Mulholland resigned as the Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power's chief engineer.
96 LOUIS SULLIVAN  Architect 1856 1924 The famous dictum, "Form ever follows function," belongs to Sullivan, who practiced in Chicago. The Stock Exchange Building in Chicago 1894, the Wainwright Building in St. Louis 1891 and the Guaranty Building in Buffalo 1895 reflect Sullivan's talent of ornamenting a simple form with so-called "organic symbolism." Prior to a 20-year rift, Frank Lloyd Wright worked for him for six years. In later years, Sullivan's practice changed from skyscrapers to small buildings, and he wrote books on organic architecture. He died in poverty in a Chicago hotel
1 GEORGE W. GOETHALS  Water 1858 1928 A shy yet charismatic engineer, Goethals played a major role in shaping New York City. An education at West Point and extensive experience in waterworks engineering made him a natural to lead the huge Panama Canal project in 1907. His skill in handling personnel as well as construction plans resulted in the canal's completion after years of futility by others. Years later, as a consulting engineer after retiring from the Army in 1916, he became an indispensable resource for New York area transportation planners. But a furious debate ensued after Clifford Holland nixed Goethals' single 42-ft-dia tube design for the Holland Tunnel, fearing that it might float in the river bottom's silt. .
216 WILLIAM B. PARSONS  Tunnel 1859 1932 Hanging out his shingle in 1885, Parsons started on what proved his life's passion: a subway for New York City. Arguing for electric traction rather than steam power for the trains, he designed and served as chief engineer of its IRT subway. It opened in 1904 with his ventilation plan based on the piston action of trains running in a tunnel. As co-founder of Parsons Brinckerhoff, he served on the board of consultants designing the Panama Canal. During World War I he led the legendary "Fighting Engineers" of the Eleventh Engineer Regiment.
207 HENRY M. BRINCKERHOFF  Tunnel 1868 1949 The co-inventor of the third rail and the related sliding shoe, Brinckerhoff also designed and built subway tunnels under New York City's East River. A mass transit expert, he moved New York City-based Parsons Brinckerhoff in the 1930s into the then-new field of transportation planning. For the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission in 1938, he devised one of the first studies to predict volume and earnings for the first of the modern long-distance toll roads. This pioneering work supported the bond issues by which they were financed.
237 GEORGE W. FULLER  Sanitation 1868 1934 A Broadway angel, real estate investor, Idaho rancher and Wall St. brokerage house silent partner—and consulting sanitary engineer for 34 years—Fuller was an early advocate of the use of rapid sand filtration. The City of Louisville hired him in 1895 to correct problems with its municipal water supply, drawn from the Ohio River. The prevailing European technique, slow sand filtration, was prone to failure in turbid water. Fuller's 1895-97 experiments formed the basis for the "American" system of coagulation, sedimentation and filtration, still the prevailing municipal water treatment scheme a century later.
84 ALBERT KAHN  Architect 1869 1942 Color-blindness turned Kahn from art to architecture, and his 1880 emigration from Germany to Detroit set the stage for America's foremost industrial architect, a niche his peers shunned. Kahn's rise coincided with the growth of U.S. industry, particularly automaking in his hometown. In his landmark 1917 design of Ford Motor's half-mile-long Rouge plant, he created an environment that was worker-friendly, with good lighting and ventilation in a single-story, single-roof plant. He went on to design more than 1,000 Ford plants. By 1937, his firm handled 20% of designed U.S. factories. He also assisted in the huge 1930s Soviet industrialization, involving 521 factories in 25 cities.
99 FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT  Architect 1869 1959 One of America's greatest architects, Wright was intent on breaking the box. For houses, he developed a pinwheel plan, with open common spaces at the center. Going against the grain, he developed a style incorporating triangles, hexagons and circles. And he embraced wood and concrete in the era of the I-beam. The spiralling, concrete Guggenheim Museum, which opened in New York City in 1952, exemplifies Wright's interest in free and flowing form. His interest in blending buildings into their settings is most evident in Pennsylvania at Fallingwater 
24 JOSEPH B. STRAUSS  Bridge 1870 1938 Humiliated during a football scrimmage while a college sophomore, 5-ft-tall, 120-lb Strauss vowed to build the world's biggest thing. As chief engineer of the Golden Gate Bridge, he set a record for tower height and suspension span. Before that, he set records for lengths and weights of bascule bridges. Anxious to prove the feasibility of crossing the Golden Gate, he proposed an unsightly hybrid structure but then accepted help while hogging credit for the graceful redesign. He spent 18 years overcoming political, regulatory, financial and construction hurdles to build the crossing for a mere $35 million. Exhausted, he died a year after its 1937 completion.
234 HARRISON P. EDDY  Sanitation 1870 1937 Few early 20th century civil engineers knew more about U.S. municipal sewerage systems than Eddy. This industrious Pilgrim descendent was running the Worcester, Mass., system one year out of college. In the next 15, he built 100 miles of sewer line there, among many other achievements. As a consultant with Leonard Metcalf he planned new wastewater facilities across the U.S., including design of one of the earliest Imhoff tank trickling filters. He co-wrote the quintessential environmental textbook, Sewerage and Sewerage Disposal. 
183 ROBERT MAILLART  Bridge 1872 1940 A Swiss engineer, he demonstrated new forms for making elegant concrete structures such as the thin, 90-meter-long, hollow-box Salginatobel Bridge, opened in 1930. Yet he remained shunned by most U.S. bridge engineers, who objected to the way he used simplified calculations and extensive field observations rather than complex computations. For buildings, Maillart also invented new floor and roof forms. In 1908, he invented a slab system for heavily loaded warehouses with column capitals but no beams.
189 LEON MOISSEIFF  Bridge 1872 1943 Although blamed for the wind-driven collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940, he remains respected for showing how to make long-span bridges more graceful. In 1909, as designer of the Manhattan Bridge, Moisseiff introduced "deflection theory" from Europe. Latvian-born, he became the world's foremost authority on suspension-bridge engineering and consulted on most major long-span bridges in the U.S. He stiffened the two-lane, 2,800-ft-long Tacoma Narrows Bridge, the world's most slender for its length and width, with a mere 8-ft-deep plate girder rather than a truss. He died three years after the disaster but was still so esteemed that the American Society of Civil Engineers established the Moisseiff Award fund.
27 GUY F. ATKINSON  Water 1875 1968 A stonemason's grandson and contractor's son, Atkinson was literally born to construction. His revolutionary use of equipment and technique often proved ingenious. On California's Pardee Dam, he built an intricate web of towers, pipes and chutes to deliver wet concrete from a plant near the abutment to any part of the structure. He innovated the use of earthmoving shovels on Oregon's Barview Highway and Monterey Harbor. These prepared Guy F. Atkinson Co. for one of its landmark jobs: excavating dam abutments, diverting the Columbia River and building foundations for the lower half of Grand Coulee Dam.
30 WILBERT J. AUSTIN  Construction 1876 1940 What came to be called the Austin Method, inaugurated about 1901 by W.J. Austin, was radical for its time—a contract offering "undivided responsibility" for design and construction, with cost and schedule guarantees. The approach foreshadowed by several decades the design-build movement that has become so popular in recent years. A later expansion of the concept offered the approach in conjunction with a catalog of standard factory designs, doing for industrial construction what Henry Ford did for automobile manufacturing.
204 CLAUDE H. BIRDSEYE  Water 1878 1938 Treacherous overhanging cliffs and boiling sandstorms ruled out the use of conventional methods in 1930 to survey Black Canyon, the future site of Hoover Dam. Using terrestrial photogrammetry instead, Birdseye helped develop photogrammetry by establishing an intricate network of survey controls in the canyon. Seven years earlier as the first chief topographic engineer of the U.S. Geological Survey, he led a 251-mile expedition through the Colorado River's most dangerous reaches, partly to evaluate potential dam sites.
123 EUGENE FREYSSINET  Concrete 1879 1962 In the age of air ships, Freyssinet designed two immense barrel-vault hangars, for which he developed the first space frames out of reinforced concrete. Thin concrete skin covers side-by-side, bridge-like arches at the Orly dirigible hangars, completed by 1924. Earlier, as a provincial highway engineer in France, he designed three record-length concrete bridges, each 72.5 meters long, one of which nearly failed in 1911 as the concrete "creeped." An understanding of creep led to Freyssinet's patent in 1928 for prestressed concrete.
174 OTHMAN H. AMMANN  Bridge 1879 1966 After investigating the 1940 collapse of the too slender Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Ammann made a major contribution to graceful, suspension bridge design. As chief engineer of the Port of New York Authority, he developed a tubular stiffening framework, devised for the slender, then-record-span 4,260-ft Verrazano Narrows Bridge that opened in 1965. Decades earlier, he set an example that encouraged others to permit greater flexibility of stiffening girders. While doubling the record for the length of any previous bridge, Ammann designed the 3,500-ft George Washington Bridge without stiffening trusses. Opened in 1931, it was stiffened up with a second roadway in 1962.
45 HENRY J. KAISER  Construction 1882 1967 By age 13, Kaiser was building an empire, earning enough as a photographer's apprentice to buy the business at 20. He was on roll that would last more than 50 years and include big ventures in construction, shipbuilding, metals, auto production and real estate. "Find a need and fill it," was Kaiser's mantra. Big jobs with big risks didn't faze Kaiser, who used technology, hubris and political connections to succeed. His longtime link to government construction began with Hoover Dam and lasted into World War ii defense work and beyond with more than 1,000 projects. Kaiser drove staff and himself hard, with 18-hour days common. But his enthusiasm and financial incentives maintained loyalty. He reached out to labor and founded one of the country's largest HMOs, Kaiser Permanente.
5 CLIFFORD M. HOLLAND  Tunnel 1883 1924 Holland seemed most at home underground. After graduating from Harvard in 1906, he went to New York as an engineer for the Rapid Transit Commission, building subways and tunnels. When appointed in 1919 at age 36, he was the youngest chief tunnel engineer in the U.S. and perhaps in all the world. Holland made up for youth with dogged conviction and defied the respected George Goethals to design a tunnel of twin cast-iron lined tubes, each 29 ft in diameter, for the tunnel between New York and New Jersey. Rising costs, accidents and sandhog strikes plagued the project. Before the crossing was completed, Holland had a nervous breakdown and died.
78 WALTER GROPIUS  Architect 1883 1969 The "house for building" school will forever be associated with Gropius, director of The Bauhaus School, which he also designed, for Dessau, Germany, in 1926. With "art and technology the new unity" as the motto, the school pushed a team approach to a machine-age architecture that relied on a high degree of organization, smooth surfaces, primary colors, modern materials such as steel and glass and simple geometries. Born in Berlin, he became a professor at Harvard University. In 1945, he formed The Architects Collaborative nearby.
228 KARL TERZAGHI  Soil 1883 1963 More art than science, geotechnical engineering relied heavily on local custom in 1904, when Terzaghi, "the father of soil mechanics," earned his engineering degree in Austria. In applying his fascination with geology to the field construction problems he encountered, he developed the theory of effective stress to explain the behavior of soils under loads. The 1925 publication of his Earthwork Mechanics Based on the Physics of Soils established him as a leading authority and founder of the science of soil mechanics.
54 HARRY W. MORRISON  Engineer 1885 1971 In the beginning, "that damned kid" annoyed bosses, coworkers and competitors alike with his tireless energy. By age 27, Morrison had launched Morrison-Knudsen Corp., promising Morris H. Knudsen he'd contribute "plenty of guts" if his 50-year-old partner donated $600. Morrison took credit for pioneering the "joint venture" approach, organizing the "Six Companies" that built Hoover Dam in the 1930s. Creative bidding and aggressive scheduling brought MK a $1-million profit. By the 1950s, MK was the world's largest heavy contractor, and even with financial ups and downs since then, it remains a $2-billion giant in industrial, defense and transportation markets. Morrison remains a philanthropic legacy in his and MK's hometown of Boise, Idaho.
111 HARDY CROSS  Engineer 1885 1959 Laboriously solving simultaneous equations by hand, slide-rule-era engineers once used "exact" classical methods to calculate gravity and lateral load effects on unbraced multistory, multibay frames. Cross, as a structural engineering professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, blasted that argument for simultaneous equations with publication of a revolutionary paper on a quick-and-dirty, readily understood, sufficiently accurate method of iterative analysis called "moment distribution." Nationally honored for devising the method, Cross admitted in a 1936 ceremony that he disliked complicated formulas, radios and spinach. An influential hydraulic as well as structural engineer, he devised a key method for analyzing flow distributions in pipe networks.
195 DAVID B. STEINMAN  Bridge 1886 1960 Brilliant, driven and self-promoting, Steinman embraced the heroic aspects of engineering. A child of immigrants growing up in the shadow of the Brooklyn Bridge, he left his mark on suspension bridge design through several innovations and through his masterpiece, the Mackinac Bridge in Michigan. But his contribution to professional practice may be even greater. His ardor in reviewing the errors in the Tacoma Narrows Bridge grated on some of his contemporaries. But his stirrings for engineering registration–and service as founding president of the National Society for Professional Engineers—may equal his accomplishments in design.
72 LE CORBUSIER  Architect 1887 1965 Born Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-Gris in Switzerland, he moved to Paris in 1917 and changed his name in 1920 to his grandfather's Le Corbusier. Known for his 1923 book Towards a New Architecture, Le Corbusier was "Mr. International Style." After World War II, he switched to brute concrete and articulated forms. His book lists elements of "new architecture:" widely spaced, regularly ordered supports instead of bearing walls; open plans; roof terraces instead of roofs; bands of windows instead of punched windows; and a freely organized facade.
156 WILLIS H. CARRIER  AirConditioning 1887 1950 The "father" of air conditioners, he attracted worldwide attention in 1911 after disclosing his Rational Psychrometric Formula to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Carrier's great idea was triggered in 1902 by the problem of varying humidity at a lithographing plant in Brooklyn. By applying mechanical refrigeration to cooling air, he reduced and held constant its moisture content. Carrier responded to the rise of the skyscraper with the 1939 invention of the Conduit Weathermaster System, which involved the distribution of conditioned air at high velocity through small conduits to individual rooms. Carrier's work stands as an authoritative basis for all fundamental calculations in the air-conditioning sector.
186 CONDE B. MCCULLOUGH  Bridge 1887 1946 A harmonic convergence of the built and natural environments occurs where McCullough's long, low spans seem to flow to the waterways they cross and echo the rolling low foothills of Oregon's coastal mountains range. As an assistant state highway engineer and chief bridge engineer, he designed hundreds of spans including 10 major ones on Oregon's coast highway. Perhaps the most innovative of McCullough's contributions was his use of the reinforced concrete tied arch. With the deck hung by suspenders from overhead arches, and the deck acting as the tie, it proved an economical yet beautiful choice for steep places where it was nearly impossible to provide massive abutments for conventional arches.
11 ROBERT MOSES  Construction 1888 1981 New York City's famed "Master Builder" got his first taste of politics early in his six-decade career when he and mentor Mayor John P. Mitchell were ousted for advocating civil service reform. He learned fast how to shield his projects and power from scrutiny. Over the years, Moses wielded influence and arrogance in city and state government to become the "czar" of regional infrastructure. Even with no construction training, he left behind 2.4 million acres of state parks, 416 miles of parkway, a dozen bridges, two dams and high-profile buildings such as the U.N. and Lincoln Center. But opposition to urban renewal approach cost him support by the late 1960s.
141 PIER LUIGI NERVI  Concrete 1891 1979 A believer in the inherent aesthetics of good structural solutions, he created elegant structures by using a new method of enclosing vast open spaces with reinforced concrete. Born in Lombardy, he continued a great Italian tradition of innovation by designing in his own style, and showed the awesome effect of correlating science with beauty. Nervi designed immense concrete shells and heavily loaded slabs with precast intersecting ribs. His buildings, such as Rome's Florence Stadium, are considered extraordinary for the clarity of their engineering and beautiful gracefulness of free-curving shapes, with effects once impossible to achieve with posts, beams or girders.
246 ABEL WOLMAN  Sanitation 1892 1989 More than anyone, Wolman combined engineering practice with public health and hygiene into what came to be known as sanitary engineering. He developed water and sewage chlorination and disinfection procedures used globally, and wielded strong influence in federal policy on water pollution control and water resources management in an eight-decade career. The Johns Hopkins University graduate continued as professor and a department chairman. He held some 200 other professional roles.
102 OVE ARUP  Architect 1895 1988 Committed to "achieving the perfect union of design and construction," Arup created an international, London-based design firm. Born in the U.K. to Danish parents, he studied philosophy and mathematics in Copenhagen, then rejected the idea of studying architecture in favor of engineering. Transferred to London as an engineer, he became part of the Modern Architecture movement. In 1933, for one of its leaders, Berthold Lubetkin, he engineered an innovative structure of load-bearing reinforced concrete walls, cast on site with movable formwork. Arup went on to lead the engineering of the Sydney Opera House, completed in 1973.
126 R. BUCKMINSTER FULLER  Engineer 1895 1983 An engineer, mathematician, architect and prophet who believed that technology could "save" the world, Fuller translated his unconventional beliefs into a building that embodied them–the geodesic dome. Patented in 1947, it was hailed initially as a kind of Buck Rogers-meets-Albert Einstein invention. It demonstrates Fuller's structural-relationship principle 
36 GEORGE R. BROWN  Engineer 1898 1983 In 1923, Brown joined a fledgling Texas road construction enterprise owned by his brother Herman Brown and brother-in-law Dan Root. "I never thought I'd make any real money," George said later. "What was important was the romance of engineering." But under his direction, Brown & Root became an international engineering firm with expertise in virtually every aspect of heavy construction. He guided the growth of offshore oil technology. And he became an elder statesman of Texas politics and close associate of President Lyndon Johnson.
225 LEIF J. 'JACK' SVERDRUP  Engineer 1898 1976 Dubbed "the engineer soldier at his best," Norwegian immigrant Jack Sverdrup served the U.S. in Minnesota's and Missouri's transportation engineering departments, and as a soldier in both world wars. At age 26, he became Minnesota's chief bridge engineer, greatly impressing his engineering professor, John Parcel. In 1928, at 30, he and 50-year-old Parcel founded a consulting firm. Sverdrup briefly left the firm in World War II to direct U.S. Army construction. Sverdrup's firm went on to design projects as diverse as the nation's first wind tunnel, a 650-mile Arctic pipeline, the world's largest aerospace research center and the 17-mile Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel.
33 STEPHEN D. BECHTEL SR.  Construction 1900 1989 His father, Warren, founded the company but Stephen Sr. built Bechtel Group Inc. into a global construction giant that could handle almost anything. After Warren's death in 1933, Stephen Sr. helped finish the firm's biggest test until then, Hoover Dam. He then moved the firm into construction management and abroad. He built pipelines when others didn't and was rewarded with oil-related work globally. And he got in on the ground floor of the nuclear energy market. He turned over control in 1960 to his son, Stephen D. Bechtel Jr.
48 PETER KIEWIT  Construction 1900 1979 The founder of one of this century's most successful hard money, at-risk construction firms, Kiewit showed how to achieve growth by expecting nothing less than the best from his work force. Employees of Peter Kiewit Sons Co. receive formal training taught by company executives in management as well as construction skills–from soils engineering and equipment management to insurance coverage and labor relations. Kiewit's construction management expertise put Los Angeles on wheels Santa Ana Freeway; moved oil south from Alaska Trans-Alaska oil pipeline); and drove tunnels through the Continental Divide the Transbay Tube), Baltimore Harbor 
66 H.B. 'PAT' ZACHRY  Construction 1901 1984 Zachry's small company rented mules to move dirt on its first job in 1924. San Antonio-based H.B. Zachry Co. grew into one of the nation's largest construction firms. In building Embalse Paloma Dam in Chile, the Trans-Andean Highway in Peru, an air base in Thailand, and sanitary and storm sewers in Saudi Arabia, the company helped pave the way for U.S. contractors to work abroad. A risktaker who spurned security for opportunity, Zachry built a fortune, much of which he returned to his community and state.
171 EVERETT C. SHUMAN  Energy 1902 1995 As a 12-year-old boy, he became preoccupied with wall construction after a stucco wall at home began buckling because of a leak in the flashing. As a civil engineer and "father of the R-value," he simplified the method for computing the combined insulating value of diverse materials. Useful for designing composite walls, the R-value allows for adding thermal resistances. Shuman also came up with the term "vapor retarder" to replace "vapor barrier" when referring to insulating materials.
210 ARTHUR CASAGRAND E  Soil 1902 1981 Imperial Austria-Hungary produced a second soil-mechanics pioneer after Karl Terzaghi) in Casagrande. His fundamental research led to the formulation of criteria and tests that gave shape and definition to the unfolding understanding of soil behavior under load. The Army Corps of Engineers' and Bureau of Reclamation's Unified Classification System of soils was derived from a system he devised while training engineer-officers during World War II. His foundation designs support hydropower dams on three continents. 
60 LOUIS R. PERINI  Construction 1903 1972 At age six, he was the family contractor's water boy. At 21, he was president. Perini then catapulted his immigrant father's Massachusetts firm into a giant that built landmarks in Boston and elsewhere, including record tunnels under Niagara Falls, parts of San Francisco's bart system and Quebec hydroelectric projects. Time was precious to Perini, and he innovated its management–from use of private aircraft to reach far-flung jobs to critical-path method scheduling. He diversified into mining, marine work and owning the former Boston Braves. There, he fired manager Casey Stengel, who went on to lead the New York Yankees.
57 CARL A. MORSE  Construction 1905 1989 A colorful construction legend with an amazing knowledge of materials and equipment, Morse was an innovator in construction management techniques such as the critical-path method and fast-tracking. Trained as an engineer, he joined Diesel Construction in 1953 and led it into what he first called "construction consulting" in 1957. The firm became Morse Diesel International Inc. His landmark projects include the Sears Tower in Chicago, the Pan Am Building in New York City, and the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC.
81 PHILIP JOHNSON  Architect 1906 Art is long. Life is brief, Johnson said in 1987. In a long-lived career, his architecture spanned from International Style to Post Modernist to Deconstructivist—although he shunned categorizations. Johnson's ability to literally think out of the box resulted in the broken pediment atop the AT&T Building in New York City, launching a return to spires and other building tops that changed the skylines of U.S. cities in the 1980s. Critics have said that he may be more important for his ideas than for his building—but those ideas have been powerful.
240 HUNTER ROUSE  Water 1906 1996 A paid puppeteer and ventriloquist in college, Rouse eventually became a leading hydraulic engineer. More intrigued with analytical theory than applied research, he authored influential texts in fluid mechanics. Besides serving as director of the world-renowned Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research in Iowa City, he led pioneering research in topics such as river sedimentation. In 1961, he arranged the first exchange visit between directors of hydraulics laboratories in the U.S. and Soviet Union.
150 GEORGE WINTER  Engineer 1907 1982 The only person to serve on both the American Institute of Steel Construction and American Concrete Institute code committees, Vienna-born Winter directed the Cornell University research that resulted in the American Iron and Steel Institute's publication in 1946 of the first Specifications for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members.He introduced the concept of folded-plate concrete roofs to U.S.
93 EERO SAARINEN  Architect 1910 1961 The son of Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen, Eero first studied sculpture before turning to the profession of his father. Known for visual and structural experimentation, the younger Saarinen made his mark in the U.S. with such soaring structures as the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and two airport buildings—the Trans World Airlines terminal at New York City's Idlewild, now John F. Kennedy International, and the main terminal at Dulles International in northern Virginia. Other notable buildings of his include the General Motors Technical Center in Warren, Mich., Yale University's Ingalls Hockey Rink and Kresge Auditorium at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
243 ROY F. WESTON  Sanitation 1911 Long before Love Canal epitomized the country's environmental decline, Weston took up the anti-pollution crusade. One of the first sanitary engineers hired by corporate America in the 1930s and an environmental consulting pioneer, he advanced a multidisciplinary approach that has been widely copied. At 88, he no longer actively runs the firm that bears his name, but is a tireless advocate of sustainable development, a growing movement to blend progress with environmental and resource management
135 TUNG-YEN LIN  Concrete 1912 In 1955, Lin introduced a radically simple idea for designing concrete–that a moment couple exists when concrete takes axial compression forces and prestressed steel takes tension. With that, design of prestressed frames, slabs and shells became standard. The firm he cofounded in 1954 pioneered design of post-tensioned slabs. Once called "Mr. Prestressed Concrete," Lin gained attention for wanting to bridge the Bering Strait. After quitting T.Y. Lin International in 1992, he CO-founded a firm that joint ventures in his native China.
222 RALPH B. PECK  Tunnel 1912 Chicago's soft clay presented a serious challenge to tunneling engineers for the city's subway. But Peck, who established and headed one of the world's first soil mechanics labs under Karl Terzaghi, recalled the excitement of being on the leading edge of the new discipline. One fruit of their four-year collaboration on the project was the classic textbook Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice. But even after he retired as a professor at the University of Illinois to become an internationally renowned geotechnical consultant, he remained a teacher at heart. Guiding the development of new engineering talent has been a top priority for which he has always made time.
63 JAMES W. ROUSE  Renovation 1914 1996 An urban planner by avocation, developer by profession, presidential advisor by request, humanitarian by nature, Rouse helped revitalize U.S. cities. Beginning with Boston's Faneuil Hall-Quincy Market, he transformed blighted warehouses into bustling modern-day "festival marketplaces," calling them "a reaction to the segregated, subdivided suburbs," which he in fact helped build. Indeed, he coined the term "shopping mall." Rouse's Enterprise Foundation, founded in 1982, helps the nation's inner-city poor house themselves.
231 HOLLY A. CORNELL  Engineer 1914 1997 A CH2M Hill founder in 1946, Cornell could not have foreseen its growth into a 7,000-person engineering giant. His talents in booming environmental and industrial markets led to numerous roles, from technology director to chairman. Considered the "brains" of the firm, he was also a hands-on manager, supervising landmark projects such as Denver's Foothills water treatment plant. Cornell was a key architect of the CH2M culture that strongly valued service to clients, even difficult ones. He was picked by Gen. George Patton in 1941 to lead repair of Germany's Remagen bridge that allowed the Allies to cross the Rhine.
90 IEOH MING PEI  Architect 1917 Dazzling daylight, cutting edges, triangulation, expressed structure, appropriate transparency—I.M. PEI's architecture is geometric sculpture. The East Building of the National Gallery in Washington, D.C., the Pyramid at the Louvre in Paris, the Bank of China office tower in Hong Kong—his projects add grace, dignity and even playfulness to the built environment. Born in China and a naturalized U.S. citizen, PEI blends Eastern and Western aesthetics and sensibilities in his graceful forms. He still maintains an office at the firm he founded in 1955.
105 LYNN S. BEEDLE  Engineer 1917 Beginning in the late 1940s at Lehigh University, Beedle directed research into the "plastic" behavior of yielding, steel structures. But he did a great deal more than help provide the basis for limits-state design. Beedle headed up the scholarly Structural Stability Research Council for nearly 25 years. And in 1969 at Lehigh, he founded the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Bringing together often disparate elements of architecture, engineering, environmentalism, sociology, psychology, art and politics, Beedle initiated a worldwide dissemination of information about advances in the planning, design, construction and operations of tall buildings.
153 OMAR W. BLODGETT  Engineer 1917 Before becoming the nation's preeminent author of weld-design handbooks, Blodgett beseeched highway officials to allow welded connections and plate girders in place of riveted ones. With Design of Welded Structures 1966 , he provided necessary analytical tools. A mechanical engineer by training, and a Lincoln Electric Co. design consultant since 1945, he devised the first method for analyzing three-dimensional weld groups. In 1980s, rationalized the need to enlarge weld access holes to reduce cracking of welded steel jumbo sections.
213 BEN C. GERWICK JR.  Concrete 1919 After joining Ben C. Gerwick Inc. as a field engineer in 1946, Ben Jr. built on his father's work. He led in the use of lengthy prestressed concrete piles; led the development of a slurry wall system that incorporates soldier beams; helped advance the use of large-diameter tubular steel piles; helped develop high-quality tremie concrete for building underwater structures; and helped develop bridge piers constructed of prefabricated concrete shells. And he helped design many of the world's major bridges, tunnels, dams and offshore structures.
39 JOHN ROBERT 'BOB' FLUOR  Construction 1923 1984 In his trademark bow tie, Fluor was as comfortable with the Shah of Iran as he was with the football coach of his beloved University of Southern California Trojans. But his relationships with world leaders helped boost Fluor Corp. to new heights as a global megabuilder, with a $3-billion Indonesian refinery and a $5-billion South African coal gasification project among his prize ventures. Few others were willing to take on the logistical challenges. In South Africa, Fluor trained some 20,000 workers as welders, pipefitters and electricians.
42 GERALD D. HINES  Construction 1925 Hines started as a child entrepreneur selling shoes to factory workers in Gary, Ind. His development firm now controls more than 500 properties worldwide worth $9 billion. He chose Houston for his base because of existing connections, but its "anything goes" mentality of the 1960s and 1970s was a catalyst for self-made tycoons. Hines developed warehouses on the side while working as an engineer. Unlike many developers, he's not a speculator, instead maintaining a low debt ratio on properties and securing a major tenant before developing a project. Hines was the first developer to hire leading architects to design commercial buildings. Hard work and good instincts generated success, but luck was pivotal. Hines sold his first buildings just before Houston's real estate market bottomed in the 1980s.
51 BUCK MICKEL  Construction 1925 1998 What friends and employees miss most about him are his ‘‘Buck Bullets,'' personal notes of congratulations and praise in his trademark red ink. Formidably dynamic as president of Daniel International Co., with a keen sense for spotting a trend, he took the company from a regional player to a global construction giant with expertise in many markets. After Fluor Corp. bought Daniel in 1977, his drive toward diversification helped save Fluor when the bottom fell out of the oil-and-gas market in the early 1980s. To support the growing merit-shop movement, he developed one of the best craft-training programs in the U.S., and worked with South Carolina to develop a network of technical schools, to support an industrial economy as the state moved away from its agricultural roots.
192 JEAN M. MULLER  Concrete 1925 Born in Paris and poverty, Muller studied his way into a master's degree in engineering at one of Paris' premier schools, developing a taste for strength of materials and structural analysis. From 1947 to 1950, he worked under Eugene Freyssinet, who developed the first concepts of precast segmental bridges. Muller helped introduce prestressed concrete structures into North America in the 1950s and eventually returned to France, where he developed precast segmental construction with match-marking joints for the first time on the Choisy-le-Roi bridge in 1962. The Florida Keys Bridges, Sunshine Skyway Bridge, Hawaii's H-3 Viaduct and Northumberland Strait Crossing all exemplify Jean Muller International's work.
69 JOHN L. TISHMAN  Construction 1926 Founded by Julius Tishman in 1898, Tishman Realty & Construction Co. Inc. originally built its own buildings exclusively. But grandson John persuaded the family to sell its construction management expertise. Tishman managed construction of the World Trade Center, John Hancock Building, Renaissance Center and EPCOT He was an early proponent of having a cm put a high-caliber staff to work for a client for a negotiated fee. And for the World Trade Center project, he helped develop drywall construction methods and automatic lighting.
108 HORST BERGER  Engineer 1928 Pioneering the design of fabric tension structures, Horst Berger developed an analytical method for determining the geometry and stress patterns of a radial tent resting on a square base. Such a tent-shaped roof tops four stories at the Great Adventure amusement park in New Jersey. Now a principal in the Light Structures Division of DeNardis Associates, White Plains, N.Y., he broadened the procedure to multiple tents, then to tension structure shapes of any configuration. His work led to landmark designs by now-defunct Geiger Berger Associates and by others for the Haj Terminal, the San Diego Convention Center and Denver International Airport.
132 FAZLUR KHAN  Engineer 1928 1982 Born in what was then East Pakistan, he came to the U.S. on a Fulbright scholarship and combined technical genius with a sensitivity for people and where they work. Khan devised six new structural systems, including tubular design to use a building's closely spaced perimeter columns for wind resistance. As a partner in the Chicago office of architect-engineer Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, he bundled nine tubular modules for the 1,454-ft-tall Sears Tower. And he designed Chicago's diagonally braced John Hancock Building.
144 LESLIE E. ROBERTSON  Engineer 1928 He is called a holistic thinker, an innovator and a humanitarian. His firm, Leslie E. Robertson Associates, worked with I.M. Pei to create a first-of-its-kind, composite steel-and-concrete megastructure for Hong Kong's 1,209-ft-tall Bank of China, topped out in 1988. Earlier, as a partner at Skilling Helle Christiansen Robertson, he conceived of the viscoelastic damper while directing the engineering of the 1,368-ft and 1,362-ft-tall towers of the World Trade Center. And he helped launch the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction.
75 FRANK O. GEHRY  Architect 1929 His forms are often curvaceous and off kilter, and always provocative. Growing up with the family name Goldberg in a small enclave of Toronto created an "outsider mentality" that allowed him to march to a different drummer during his 40 years in practice, he says. By the time the American Institute of Architects named him a Gold Medal winner last year, Gehry was an often mispronounced household name, a result of the enthusiastic reception of his Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, which opened in 1997. The building, which outshines the art inside, put the obscure Spanish industrial city of Bilbao on the world map.
120 JOHN W. FISHER  Bridge 1931 After helping to conduct post-mortems on nearly every major failure of a steel structure, from the Hartford Civic Center to the Mianus River Bridge, Fisher campaigned for research to advance technology and prevent failures. In 1986, he was named director of the Center for Advanced Technology for Large Structural Systems at Lehigh University–the first National Science Foundation-funded research center focused on civil engineering. Fisher's research has advanced the knowledge of fatigue and brittle fractures of steel.
114 ALAN G. DAVENPORT  Engineer 1932 Models for many of the world's tallest and longest structures ended up in the hands and wind tunnel of Davenport, one of the first to use wind tunnels in the design of structures. An engineering professor at the University of Western Ontario, he founded its renowned Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory in 1965, then consulted on the designs of New York City's World Trade Center, Chicago's Sears Tower, Toronto's CN Tower, France's Normandy Bridge and more. For Canada, he developed the world's first statistically based, seismic hazard zoning map. Serving on national and international panels, he focused on preventing catastrophic losses from natural disasters.
129 DAVID H. GEIGER  Engineer 1935 1989 For the low budget and high wind loads of the U.S. Pavilion at Expo '70 in Osaka, Geiger figured out how to calculate the placement and loading of cable-net restraints for a low-profile, air-supported fabric roof. Later, after Geiger Berger Associates designed other air-supported roofs, problems with roof deflations led him to a new vision of R. Buckminster Fuller's "tensegrity dome." With continuous tension cables and discontinuous compression posts, Geiger created two cable domes for the Olympic Park in Seoul with roofs weighing just 2 psf.
180 EUGENE C. FIGG  Bridge 1936 The founder of the Figg Engineering Group took a high-school hobby of building models and parlayed it into a tireless crusade for building beautiful, low-cost bridges that require minimal maintenance. Outspoken and strong-willed, he founded the American Segmental Bridge Institute, bringing together owners, contractors, suppliers and designers to promote concrete segmental bridges. Figg's 1,650-ft Natchez Trace Parkway is the country's longest concrete arch bridge.
147 CHARLES H. THORNTON  Engineer 1940 High-profile forensic structural investigations, such as of Oklahoma City's bombed federal building in 1995, are the norm for Thornton. So are high-profile buildings. As LZA Group Inc.'s chairman, he engineered the record-tall 1,483-ft Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur, completed in 1997. Thornton now has also thrown his energy into the three-year-old ACE Mentor Program. Each year, ACE's teams of architects, engineers and contractors expose at least 250 high school students to building design and construction..
198 MAN-CHUNG TANG  Bridge 1940 Long-span concrete bridge construction became much easier after he pioneered new techniques. Tang largely designed the nation's first cast-in-place segmental bridge, the 450-ft-long Pine Valley Creek Bridge near San Diego, completed in 1975. Next, he introduced the use of overhead gantries, derricks and cable-supported travelers to make segmental and cable-stayed erection easier. Besides helping build one-quarter of all segmental bridges in North America, he also helped build one-fifth of all long-span cable-stayed bridges in the world. Born in China, Tang founded DRC Inc. in New York City in 1978 before merging in 1995 with San Francisco-based TY Lin International, where he now serves as chairman.
8 JACK K. LEMLEY  Tunnel 1945 As a young man, Lemley cut his construction teeth by driving bulldozers and other heavy equipment. He honed management and negotiating skills in his rise to high-level positions for several large contractors, and led one of the first successful large-scale, alternative dispute resolution procedures for Morrison Knudsen Co. Inc. over the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway project. In 1989, he was tapped to reorganize the world's most high-profile construction job, the Channel Tunnel, which was mired in financial and organizational distress. He righted and built that $12-billion, London-Paris rail project.
201 MICHEL VIRLOGEUX  Bridge 1946 Extending the boundaries of cable-stayed bridge design, Virlogeux designed Frances' River Seine crossing in Normandy with a record-breaking 856-meter span between pylons— nearly 70% longer than anything before. In the process, he had to persuade skeptical officials that his design was viable. And he had to convince the construction industry that it was buildable. The project was the zenith of his 20-year government career as head of the large structures division at the French roads directorate—known by its acronym, SETRA—where he nurtured innovative bridge design. Disillusioned with the agency's future direction, he left in 1994 to act as adviser on major projects, including the Vasco da Gama bridge in Lisbon.
165 MICHAEL RIDDLE  Engineer 1948 When stand-alone desktop computers were a curiosity and single, computer-aided design systems cost more than $250,000, Riddle announced the much ridiculed goal of bringing CAD to desktops with a system costing about $20,000. In 1979, while managing a computer store, he began writing Interact, a cad program that was to run on a Texas Instruments 99/16 desktop computer. In 1982, consulting to the Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture, he linked 17 partners to form the AutoDesk company. The program was converted to run on an IBM personal computer and renamed AutoCAD, and has since become one of the most popular design software programs..
168 FRIEDER SEIBLE  Engineer 1952 One of the foremost U.S. experts in how to engineer concrete and advanced composites for earthquake resistance, German-born Seible helped legitimize the practice of jacketing seismically vulnerable concrete columns with either steel plate or polymer composites. He continues to lead in the design of advanced-composite, cable-stayed bridges. Besides chairing the structural engineering department at the University of California, San Diego, where he developed and directs a laboratory famous for large-scale testing, he serves as one of the most trusted technical advisors to the California Dept. of Transportation.