1946 Mauchy and Eckert Develop ENIAC Digital Computer at University of Pennsylvania


1947 Shockley, Brittain, Bardeen Invent Transistor at Bell Labs Murray Hill New Jersey


1956 An Wang and Jay Forrester Patent Ramdom Access Core Memory and IBM Licsenses for Computers


1959 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Independently Invent Integrated Circuit


1953 Charles Townes Develop Maser, 1960 Arthur Schawlow and Townes Introduce Laser


1960-70's IBM Dominates Mainframe Computer Market, 1967+ DEC and Others Introduce Minicomputers


1968 Noyce, Gordon Moore, Others Leave Fairchild to Found Intel. 1971 Ted Hoff Invents Microprocessor


1965+ Iven Sunderland DARPA head commissions ARPANET with Robert Taylor who later heads PARC


1973 Vincent Cerf, Robert Kahn Develop TCP/IP for Packet Switching Arpanet that Evolves to Internet


1969+ PARC Innovators Create Interactive Computing Basis for Post 1984 PC's

SRI Doug Engelbart Mouse, PARC-Xeorx: Gary Stalkweather Laser Printer,

Robert Metcalfe Ethernet, Alan Kay GUI, Butler Lampson WYSIWYG


1972+ Wang and Other Word Processors, 1976+ Digital Photography


1975 Corning Scientists Keck, Mauner, Schultz Patent Fiber Optic Cable to Speed Internet Networking in 1990's


1975 Altair 8800 and other PC's like TRS80, Commodore, Kaypro, 1977+ Jobs, Wozniak Apple II



1980 IBM PC Initiative Results in Microprocessor from Intel

Operating System for IBM PC Acquired from Bill Gates Microsoft, not Gary Kildall Digital Research CP/M


1984 AT&T Split into Baby Bells, IBM Antitrust Suit Dropped, Computer and Telecommunications Barriers Fall



1985 Cisco Formed, 1993+ Chambers Leads Cisco Internet and Router and Networking Equipment

1989 Steve Case AOL, 1994 Marc Andreessen Netscape Internet Browser, 1995 Berners-Lee World Wide Web


1996 Amazon Rebozo and 1998 Google's Page and Brin Build Dominance in E Commerce and Internet Search


1973+ Cell, Smart Phones Add Mobile Communications to PC, Laptop and Other Computers on Internet


Can Astonishing Price to Performance Record of Electricity as Basis of IT and Telecom Innovation Continue?

Can It Spur Critically Needed Progress in Energy, Transport, Work, Water and Climate Sustainability?