Atmospheric pressure as earth cooled accumulated water from eruptions, seepage in oceans


Plate tectonics altered land mass and oceans over past 500 million years


Last of 4 Glacial Ages Ended 15000 BC, Facilitated Crops, Settled Societies


Early Mesopotamian Civilizations Applied Irrigation, Built Cities



Shaduf, Waterwheels, Underground Canals to Move and Preserve Water


Early Dams on Nile, Plumbing on Indus, Irrigation in China


From 1500 BC Phonician Cites First Mediterranean Trading Network


Roman Empire Used Seas for Trade and Control, Built Aqueducts and Giant Baths


Medieval Water in Asian Rice Terraces, European Rotational Farming, Mills


Seas for Viking Expansion, Hanseatic Trade, Rivers for Europe Trade Routes


Cheng Ho Treasure Fleets in 1400's as China Then Turns in and Europe Discovery Awakens


Prince Henry Used Navigation Advances to Spur Portugal Seafaring, Find Route to Asia



Spain Sails West to Americas, England, French, Dutch Colonies in India, Americas


Steam Engine Introduces Revolutionary New Water Use for Pump and Power


Steam Applied to Transportation on Water and Rail, Canals Built


River Based Americas Fur Trade, Windmills for Water in Midwest and Plains


Water for U.S. Industrialization, Hydropower, Urban Growth in Late 1800's


Gold Rush Ship Arrivals, Hydraulic Mining, Colorado Exploration, Water Potential for West


1905-1923 California Irrigation and Water Supplies to Make Land Fertile and Habitable

1900-1913 Panama Canal and Great White Fleet Increased US Seapower


1933-1950's Great Dams and Water Projects for Arid Southwest, Columbia River, TVA SE

Seaplanes for International Air Routes, US Ships for World War II


1956 Containerization Revolutionalized Shipping and World Ports

20th Century from Seashores for Recreation to Water for Power, Supertankers for Oil


Since Romans Population 2 million to 7 billion, Freshwater About Same <50,000 Cubic Miles


Nostalgic Loss of Water Use in 5000 Years of Civilization


Water Ecosystem Challenges from Civilization for Future of Planet