Introduction to Globalization Roots and Branches

 

New economic trends often emerge from technology breakthroughs.  These lead to competitive advantages, which are extended beyond borders becoming globalized.  The political response to this evolution in various countries are based on how these trends and technologies effect peoples and what can be done to respond to real or perceived unfairness and practical opportunities.

 

Dating back to the dawn of civilization, globalization became important after critical mass was reached through progress in:

 

·        Agriculture development that led to settlements rather than wandering hunter gatherers

·        Generating surpluses that facilitated rise of trade, cities, education

·        Extending competitive advantages to sphere of economic interest  beyond a country’s borders

·        Political systems that respond to pressures from populace

 

Roots and branches of globalization might be told through any of several starting points after agriculture rose in China about 3500 BC, Indus about 3750 BC, or Mesopotamia and Egypt about 5000 BC.  This course will use Egypt as starting point, since it more directly leads to the Mediterranean and Western World civilizations, which are more familiar and provide clearer ties to globalization issues of today.

 

Approach to Reviewing Selected Globalization Eras

 

Introduction – Audio extracts, longer video available

Framework – Timeline highlights and relation to other civilizations

Technology - New and applied

Results and Conclusions - Related to Globalization

Analogies to Globalization Today – In America and around the world

 

Egypt

 

Introduction:

Ten Commandments tape ‘You build my city’

 

Timeline:

-9000 Domestication of animals

-6000 Wild grasses and grains of Anatolia lead to domesticated wheat and barley

-5000 Colonization and farm settlements in Tigris-Euphrates and Nile Valleys

-3100 Menes unites Egypt, dynasties begin

-3000 Development of major cities in Sumer

-1166 Death of Ramses III, last great Egyptian pharaoh

  -720 Assyria at height of power

 

Technology:

Irrigation, flood control

            Written language, construction projects with off season labor


 

Result:

Seasonal excess labor, public works i.e. pyramids,

            Food surpluses that support cities, bookkeeping, education, trade

            Political control of Nile, war rather than colonization elsewhere

            Limited involvement with Mesopotamia, Crete, Greece, Hittites

 

Analogy:

US to World War II except Spanish American War – Manifest Destiny

            War of 1812 to confirm independence, Monroe Doctrine to keep Europe away

            Wealth creation through internal production, innovation, organization

 

Phoenicia

 

Introduction:

Disney Dumbo ‘Did You Ever See an Elephant Fly?’ tape

 

Timeline:

-2000 First sail in Aegean – End of Cycladic (-3000-2000)

-2000-1450 Minoan Crete

-1600-1200 Mycenaean

-1500-400 Dominance of Phoenician city-states as first democracies along Eastern Mediterranean

-1500 Ugarit

-1300 Byblos

-1100 Sidon

-1000 Tyre

-400 Tripoli

 

Technology:

Perfection of sail, Mediterranean ports, Brazil, around Africa, Cornwall tin

            Navigation skills, discovered North Star

            Invented glass, perfected textiles

Invented alphabet

 

Result:

Hemmed in by mountains, forests, powers to East and South, used cedar for ships

            Small city-state basis led to trade rather than war

            Colonies and trading settlements around Mediterranean

Family and trade ties, settlements for trade

Carthage and domination of west after home state troubles from –675

Conflict with Greek city-state expansion, Greeks more warlike

 

Analogy:

Prosperity from trade and ingenuity vs. force: First or last half 20th century?

            Sea transport technology then similar to telecommunications effect now

            Complementary vs. competitive: trade difference from globalization

            Communities of interests amid powerful states: Rim of Asia, New Europe apolitical

 

Alexander the Great

 

Introduction:

Bucephalus story from Black Stallion tape

 

Timeline:

-350 – 345 Phoenician city-states unite, conquered by Persia

-334 Crosses Hellespont to conquer Mid East, Persia and East to India

-332 Alexander siege breaks Tyre and he continues conquests

-323 Alexander dies after defeating Persians moving as far as Indus

 

Technology:

Phalanx and calvary as offensive weapon

            Superb tactics and mid battle changes resulted in wins against much larger forces

            Botanists, scientists, philosophers part of entourage to spread Hellenism

 

Result:

Conquest of known world, but little time to do anything with it

            Early death brought segmentation and dissolution

            Greek culture spread wide and lasted, ie Alexandria library

 

Analogy:

Limited life span of military conquest contrasted with duration of culture spread

            Culture spread and intellectual property rights in a digital age

            Importance of individuals and leadership effectiveness

 

Rome

 

Introduction:

Ben Hur ‘I’ve seen Rome … I believe in the future of my people’ tape

 

Timeline:

-1000 Etruscans in Northern Italy

-750 Rome founded by Romulus

-390 Gauls/Celts sack Rome, defeated in Tarquina N Italy by –295

-312 Appian Way opened, first aqueduct Aqua Appia

-264-149 Punic wars, Gauls beaten near start, Greeks at end at Corinth

-59-44 Caesar Gaul, Rubicon, Egypt, death

43    Britain in Roman Empire

313-330 Constantine recognizes Christianity, moves to Constantinople

406-476 Barbarian invasions of France to end of Western Roman Empire

 

Technology:

Builders of roads, aqueducts, public forums, stadiums

            Military power and effectiveness spreads empire for centuries

            Spread culture, mostly tied to Greeks


 

Results:

Political control through military power lasting centuries

            Walls and frontiers at extremities, little foreign trade beyond

            Remarkable emergence of Christianity, Constantine, Eastern Empire

            Eventual decline, frontier weakness, defeats and fall of Western Empire

 

Analogy:

Relation of central power, military to individual beliefs ie Jews, Christians

            Spread civilization and control through transport, military might

            Little influence or trade beyond Parthian, Germanic, and Northern frontier

            Ties with far away such as China, India very limited

 

Arabs and Islam in Middle Ages

 

Introduction:

Lawrence of Arabia Cordoba to Tumbridge Wells tape

 

Timeline:

610-632 Muhammad preaches in, flees, returns to and dies in Mecca

633-642 Fertile crescent, N.Africa coast, parts of Persia Byzantine taken

732 Tours ends northward advance in Spain

755 Abbasid dynasty in Baghdad to 1055 (Turks), Umayyad in Cordoba to 1030

1097-1291 Crusades

1220-1260 Genghis Khan

1325-1354 Battuta travels

1453 – Constantinople falls

1492 – Muslims and Jews out of Spain

1526-1760 Mughal Empire in India

 

Technology:

Mathematics advancements, storehouse of Greek learning, bridge to China and India

            Astronomic data collection and correction, first observatory, astrolabe

            Chemical minerals and compounds, medicine, diet, new foods

            Water works, windmills, waterwheels, heavy steel plows

 

Results:

Storehouse ancient Greek science and math, bridge for China inventions ie paper

            Fastest and widest faith based conquests

            Extremes of sophistication of Baghdad, Cordoba, Persia, barbarism of Mongols

 

Analogy:

Preservation and extension of prior learning, copying and new applications

            Bridge for learning, civilization, trade back to Europe as outcome of Crusades

            Faith based societies in worlds of technology and economics


 

Exploration, Discovery, New Worlds, Colonies

 

Introduction:

Alistaire Cooke Moluccas Video

Stan Freberg Round Round World Tape

 

Timeline:

1405-33 Seven Treasure Fleet voyages of Chinese Cheng Ho to Indian Ocean

1432-1498 Prince Henry, Portuguese Navigators around Africa to India

1453 – Turks take Constantinople, Venice, Genoa Trade threatened, Greek scholar Diaspora

1492-1504 Columbus voyages to America

1513-1535 Balboa discovers Pacific, Cortez conquers Aztecs, Pizarro defeats Incas

1519-1522 Magellan sails around the world

 

Technology:

Triangular lateen sail caravels of Prince Henry

            Portuguese apply Arab and Jewish navigation and astronomy: astrolabe, China compass

            Guns, steel, diseases, foods and minerals introduced to Europe and New World

 

Result:

New world mineral exploitation, plantations, slavery, diseases

            European mercantilism, Spain dominance abroad, uncontrolled inflation at home

            Competition: Spain to Portugal in Indies, European colonies in America

            Decline of Mideast and Mediterranean as route to Indies

            China turns inward, not to emerge again until 1976

            Rise of European power continuing to 20th century

 

Analogy:

Management of worldwide business: triangular slave, sugar, factory, agriculture trade

            Exploitation of natives to produce Europe mineral wealth, inflation byproduct

Use of new wealth in Mediterranean and North Europe: Spain vs. Netherlands, England

 

Renaissance Europe from South to North

 

Introduction:

We Open in Venice Kiss Me Kate tape

Machine That Changed World video

 

Timeline:

1397 Founding of Medici bank, Antwerp cloth trade financing

1455 Gutenberg Bible printed

1452-1519 Life of Leonardo da Vinci

1517 Luther reformation and implications for church, state, economic life

1588 Spanish Armada

1600 British and Dutch East India Companies founded


 

Technology:

Printing flourishes in west after China invention along with paper about 900

            Double entry accounting progresses from 1300 Florence to 1492 Pacioli’s Summa

            Da Vinci as renaissance man, mechanical visions of future transport, machines, flight

 

Results:

Surpluses provide wealth for art, education, music

            Use of wealth overtakes amount and source, Spain vs. England

            Luther’s Reformation and Gutenberg’s press splits secular and sacred

            Machievelli’s Prince addresses, power, morality, emerging secular world

            Da Vinci, Bacon and Newton develop vision for industrial revolution

 

Analogy:

Printing press as prototype of telecommunications base of globalization

            Surpluses facilitate bread and circuses aspects of globalization

            Relation of political control and economic progress as arcane today as in Machievelli’s era

            Power of small states: Florence, Portugal, Netherlands and England to Rim of Asia today          

 

New Era of Colonialism as America Gains Independence

 

Introduction:

Cornwallis surrender at Yorktown tape

Great Indian Railway founding of Bombay

 

Timeline:

1630-1753 Calvinist New England and Anglican Deist Virginia led South

1754-1763 Britain wins India to offset upcoming loss of America

1764-1774 New England sparks lead colonial unification on road to revolution

1775-1781 Virginian led action and oratory leads to Independence declared, Yorktown

1783-1789 Virginian deists shape US constitution and government

 

Technology:

Rise and perfection of guerilla warfare

            Franklin practicality and inventions contrasted with Jefferson’s idealism and renaissance man

 

Results:

Yankee ingenuity blended with Anglican Virginia aristocratic longitudalism

            Pragmatic and tolerant Middle states to facilitate government compromises

            Ideals of representative democracy, individual freedoms, church state separation

 

Analogy:

Guerilla terrorism to fear in modern nation states

            Difference of birth of a dream and applying it to 21st century

            Moderation, practicality, compromise, tolerance part in more perfect union

            Importance of democracy in globalization and China

 


Industrial Revolution in England

 

Introduction:

Steam Heat Pajama Game and Steam documentary tape

 

Timeline:

1709 Darby substitutes coke for wood or charcoal to smelt iron

1712 Newcomen builds steam engine for mines, first power other than water and wind

1733-1769 Kay’s flying shuttle, Hargreaves spinning jenny, Awkwright’s water frame

1776 – James Watt steam engine, Adam Smith Wealth of Nations

1779 Watt engine with Hargreaves and Awkwright machines give automated weaving

1793 Thomas Telford aqueduct over Dee valley

 

Technology:

Steam power and engine from Newcomen to Watt and applications beyond

            Textiles: Automating of all processes from fiber to fabric

            Metal: Iron to steel, engines from mine to transportation to building

 

Result:

Craftsman to factory in textiles, apparel, shoes

            Steel as infrastructure to move people and products

            Confirmation of inventive genius: textile machines; metal processing; agriculture

            Smith’s capitalism as framework for emergence of modern business

 

Analogy:          

Technology innovation, application, extension to daily life

            Revolution of how and where people worked, rise of industrial cities

            Samuel Slater and issues of technology protection, industrial espionage

            Who patrols or moderates shifts in work location and worker skills

 

US and French Revolutions and Aftermath

 

Introduction:

Stan Freberg Careful What He Signs These Days

Quanto Tosca Scarpia tape

 

Timeline:

1778 French alliance with American colonies against British

1783 Treaty of Versailles confirms US independence, but French finances are weakened

1789 Estates General and fall of Bastille

1793-1795 Regicide and Terror

1795-1815 Napoleon from Directory Protector to Emperor to Waterloo

1803 – 1809 Commercial, government, military educational reforms, Louisiana Purchase

 

Technology:

Advances in military tactics, strategy, execution

            Jacquard loom with punch card control, Babbage difference engine

 

Results:

Chaos of French Revolution contrasts with US founding

            Equality, Fraternity, Liberty yields to Napoleon autocracy

            Continuous war in Europe leads to Waterloo and Age of Metternich

 

Analogy:

Pragmatism and compromise vs idealism and extremism as base for progress

Domestic reforms in government, commerce, education framework for progress

Balance of military power to dominate abroad versus commercial interchange

 

 

US Expansion and Industrial Revolution

 

Introduction:

Erie Canal New York Ric Burns video

Way West Introduction video

From illumination to internal combustion the Prize tape

 

Timeline:

1776 Industrial revolution and canal building in England

1807-1830 Transport revolution: Steamboats, canals, railroads

1793-1860 Cotton gin, standardized parts, mass production, plow, thresher

1865-1900 Steel, Minerals, Oil, Corporations, Trusts

1845-1900 Telegraph, Telephone, Electricity

1850-1900 Consumer products: sewing, cleaning, labor saving, entertainment

 

Technology:

Transport: steam application to water and rail

            Engineering: Canals, railroads, bridges, buildings

            Industrial power and processing: oil, steel, electricity, factories

            Communications: Transport speed at low cost, telegraph, telephone, cable

 

Results:

Erie Canal foretold East West economic development and growth

Evolution, cost outcome of Civil War

Yankee ingenuity to northern industrial might

Waves of European immigration to build country

Manifest destiny to Pacific facilitated by resources and industrialization

 

Analogy:

Competitive advantage of innovation, low labor-input cost, mass market

            Combination of immigration, labor skills, growth, endless frontier

            Robber barons, urban poor, sweatshops, income inequality, monopoly abuses

            Temptation of overseas empire at century’s end

 


Empires Shaken with Rise of New Orders

 

Introduction:

World War I Intro CBS Video

Ring Descent to Niebelung

 

Timeline:

1848 Social revolution and reaction

1867 Das Capital of Marx calls for end of private ownership

1850-1900 Expansion of British, French, German, Russian colonial empires

1820-1914 Decline and turmoil of Ottoman Empire and Balkans

1905-Japan checks Russian advance and power in Far East

1914-1918 World War I in Europe, Russian Revolution

 

Technology:

Internal combustion engine, motor vehicles

Hot air balloons to heavier than air aircraft

            German steel, electricity, chemical advances build industrial might

           

Results:

Germany and Italy unified in 1870’s, turn fascist after World War I

Capitalism shaken but survives as World War I sweeps away empires

            USSR loses territory in West, adopts communism

            Famine and repression send migrants to America

            Trenches of Western Front doom European colonial empires

            America in isolation becomes dominant industrial power, despite depression

 

Analogy:

Advantages of political stability and limitless economic opportunity

            Internationalization of labor that results from immigration

            Melting pot concept of America vs separatism and class structure of Europe

 

World War II and Emergence of US and USSR Superpowers

 

Introduction:

Casablanca Names to Noble tape

Ghandi British leaving video

 

Timeline:

1919 Onerous Treaty of Versailles, US rejection of League of Nations

1920-1933 US boom and bust, Isolation and tariffs, Reparations and inflation

1933-1939 Nazis on rise, Japan on mainland, US isolation, Italy fascists in Africa

1939-1950 Axis power to Allied victory, divided Europe, Cold War

 

Technology:

Blitzkrieg in Europe, Co prosperity in Pacific

            Nuclear power, jet engines, rockets, radar

Petrochemical synthetics from nylon to rubber

Results:

US unscathed and preeminent power

Marshall plan to counter Soviets in Europe, Japan revival under MacArthur

Colonial independence, USSR-US competition in new non-aligned world

World of genocide, refugees, demobilization

 

Analogy:

Globalization: US wealth, competitive advantage, innovation, multinationals

            Integration and adaptability of political and economic systems

            Threats to nation states: Jews in Europe, Chinese in Asia, Indians in Africa

           

Technology and Resources in Globalized World

 

Introduction:

The Prize – Saudi Arabia Oil Discovery video

Machine that Changed the World – Books to Networks video

 

Timeline:

1947 Marshall Plan and Iron Curtain

1949-1963 Communist China, Korea, McCarthy, Dominoes

1947-1963 Independence of former colonies

1973-1979 Rise of OPEC

1970-1989 Japan and Rim of Asia manufacturing

1989- 1991 Fall of Berlin Wall, Freedom in East Europe, Dissolution of USSR

1990 Emergence of China and India

 

Technology:

Transistors to microprocessors to packet switching

            Radio to television to a visual world

            Chemical evolution from petrochemical synthetics to life sciences

Nuclear disappointments, proliferation of potential mass destruction

 

Results:

US and MNC dominance of world production, consumption, trade, investment

            Loss of resource control, OPEC rises recycled via inflation, third world debt

            Technology revolutionizes production and consumption, confirms innovation

            Triumph of markets and capitalism over communism

            Complex balance between freedom and economic progress

 

Analogy: Comparison of US views on globalization today with:

Europe view of US after World Wars

American colonial view of Industrial Revolution England

Spain’s view of England in the late 1500’s

China’s view of world since Cheng Ho

Roman Empire and modern European view of Jews

Egypt and Mesopotamian kingdoms view of Phoenicians 

Conclusion