Year Keyword Event  and Description
1810 tr tv Tech T The differential gear invented by German art publisher Rudolph Ackerman, 46, permits carriages to turn a sharp corner. His steering mechanism will be used within the century on horseless carriages. 
1815 tr tv Road T Scottish road surveyor John London McAdam, 59, employs stone broken into pieces to create a hard, smooth, water-resistant roadway that will be called Macadam paving. McAdam has spent some years in America. 
1839 tr tv Tech K Massachusetts inventor Isaac Babbitt, 40, patents a journal box, or housing, for the portion of a shaft or axle contained by a plain bearing. He suggests that the box be lined with an alloy of tin, antimony, and copper that will be called Babbitt’s metal. 
1852 tr tv Co. T Studebaker Brothers is founded at South Bend, Ind., by Pennsylvania-born wagon maker Clement Studebaker, 21, with his older brother Henry. Brother John M. is making wheelbarrows for gold miners at Placersville, Calif., and will join the company in 1858 with $8,000 in earnings from the gold fields, brothers Peter I. and Jacob will join thereafter, and the company will become the world’s largest wagon and carriage maker (see 1902). 
1860 tr tv at U An internal combustion engine patented at Paris by Belgian inventor Jean Etienne Lenoir, 38, employs a carburetor that mixes liquid hydrocarbons to form a vapor. An electric spark explodes the vapor in a cylinder but Lenoir’s engine works on illuminating gas and has no compression (see Otto, 1866). 
1866 tr tv Daimler U A crude internal combustion engine patented by Cologne engineer Nikolaus August Otto, 34, will sell by the thousands in the German states and in England in the next 10 years. Otto has read of the 1860 Lenoir engine, obtained backing from engineer-businessman Eugen Langen, 33, and shares patent rights with his brother William. 
1873 tr tv Auto T Rochester, N.Y., lawyer George Baldwin Selden, 27, experiments with internal combustion engines in an effort to develop a lightweight engine that will propel a road vehicle that is more efficient than the “road locomotives” now used in some farm jobs (see 1876; Lenoir, 1860; Otto, 1866). 
1876 tr tv Daimler T Nikolaus A. Otto invents a four-cycle gasoline engine far more advanced than his 1866 engine (see Benz, 1885). 
1879 tr tv Co. T George B. Selden files for a patent on a road vehicle to be powered by an internal combustion engine; he will not obtain the patent until 1895 (see 1876; Benz, 1885). 
1882 tr tv Daimler U An internal combustion engine powered by gasoline is invented by German engineer Gottlieb Daimler, 48, who has worked with Eugen Langen (see 1886; Otto, 1866). 
1885 tr tv Daimler T The world’s first successful gasoline-driven motor vehicle reaches a speed of 9 miles per hour at Mannheim. German engineer Karl-Friedrich Benz, 41, has built the single-cylinder, chain-drive three-wheeler (see 1888; Mercedes, 1901; Mercedes-Benz, 1926). 
1886 tr tv GM T Flint, Mich., entrepreneur William Crapo Durant, 24, starts a buggy manufacturing company that will soon be the largest in the world. His partner is hardware merchant J. Dallas Dort who has acquired patent rights to a two-wheeled road cart (see Buick, 1905). 
1886 tr tv Daimler T Gottlieb Daimler perfects his internal combustion engine of 1882 (see 1887). 
1887 tr tv Auto T The first Daimler motorcar is introduced March 4 (see 1886; 1890). 
1892 tr tv Tech U An improved carburetor invented by Gottlieb Daimler mixes vaporized fuel with air to create a combustible or explosive gas (see 1890; Lenoir, 1860; Maybach, 1893). 
1892 tr tv Co. T A gasoline buggy produced at Springfield, Mass., by Charles and Franklin Duryea may be the first U.S. motorcar. It has a four-cycle water-cooled engine and a rubber and leather transmission (see 1891; Chicago-Milwaukee race, 1895). 
1893 tr tv Ford T Detroit machinist Henry Ford, 30, road-tests his first motorcar in April. An employee of the Edison Illuminating Co., Ford has been working on his “gasoline buggy” since last year (see 1896).  
1895 tr tv at U The “diesel” engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel, 37, operates on a petroleum fuel less highly refined and less costly than gasoline; it has no electrical ignition system and is simpler than a gasoline engine and more trouble-free. Diesel will work with Fried. Krupp of Essen and the Augsburg-Nuremberg machine factory to build a successful engine (see locomotive, 1913). 
1895 tr tv Co. T George B. Selden receives a patent for a “road locomotive” powered by a “liquid hydrocarbon engine” of the compression type (see 1879; 1899). 
1895 tr tv Co. T The Lanchester motorcar introduced by English engineer Frederick W. Lanchester of the Lanchester Engine Co. is the first British four-wheel gasoline-powered motorcar. It has epicyclic gearing, worm drive, and pneumatic tires. 
1895 tr tv Bus T The first Benz “Omnibus” goes into service in Germany with a one-cylinder rear engine that develops between 4 and 6 horsepower and holds eight passengers. 
1896 tr tv Co. T The Haynes-Duryea motorcar produced by Duryea Motor Wagon Co. of Springfield, Mass., is the first U.S. motorcar to be offered for public sale. Total U.S. motorcar production is 25 (see 1895; 1897). 
1896 tr tv Co. T Panhard Levassor in France introduces the first vertical four-cylinder motorcar engine; it also introduces sliding gears with a cone clutch. 
1896 tr tv Co. T The Stanley Steamer is introduced at Newton, Mass., by Francis Edgar Stanley, 47, and his twin brother Freeling O. who have prospered in making photographic dry plates but have been inspired by a DeDion Voiture à vapeur they saw demonstrated in Massachusetts last year (see 1899). 
1896 tr tv Ford T Henry Ford drives his tiller-steered Quadricycle through the streets of Detroit in the early hours of June 4 (see 1893;
1897 tr tv Co. T Autocar Co. has its beginnings in the Pittsburgh Motor Vehicle Co. started at Ardmore, Pa., by Louis S. Clarke, who introduces a three-wheeled vehicle powered by a one-cylinder air-cooled engine. Autocar will bring out a shaft-driven motorcar with a two-cylinder water-cooled engine in 1901 (see 1906). 
1898 tr tv Co. T Timken Roller Bearing Axle Co. is founded by German-American carriage maker Henry Timken, 67, who opened a St. Louis carriage works in 1855, patented a special type of carriage spring in 1877, and has just patented a tapered roller bearing that will make his company the leader in its field. 
1900 tr tv Co. T The Packard motorcar introduced at Warren, Ohio, has a chain-driven, one-cylinder, 12-horsepower engine and three forward speeds. Engineer James Ward Packard, 37, and his brother William, 39, have run Packard Electric Co. since 1890. 
1900 tr tv Co. T The Auburn motorcar introduced by Auburn Automobile Co. of Auburn, Ind., is a single-cylinder runabout with solid tires and a steering tiller. Frank and Morris Eckhardt of Eckhardt Carriage Co., who have started the firm with $2,500 in capital, will produce a two-cylinder model in 1905, a four in 1909, and a six in 1912 (see 1924). 
1900 tr tv Co. T White steam cars and trucks are introduced by a Cleveland sewing-machine firm headed by Walter White whose New England-born father Thomas invented a sewing machine in 1859, moved to Cleveland in 1866, and has developed the company now run by his sons Windsor, Rollin, and Walter. The first gasoline-powered White motorcars will appear in 1910. 
1901 tr tv Co. T Detroit Automobile Co. goes bankrupt after selling only four or five cars in 2 years. Chief engineer Henry Ford is hired as experimental engineer by the men who buy Detroit Automobile’s assets, and when a Ford-designed car wins a major race, some former Detroit Automobile stockholders form the Henry Ford Co., giving Ford one-sixth of the stock in the new company, which he will soon quit (see 1903). 
1901 tr tv GM T Detroit auto maker Ransom E. Olds, 36, moves his assembly plant to his hometown of Lansing, Mich. Copper and lumber baron Samuel L. Smith has financed the Olds Motor Works, and Olds markets 600 curved-dash “Oldsmobile” runabouts, a number he will increase to 5,000 by 1904 (see Reo, 1904). 
1901 tr tv Co. T John North Willys enters the motorcar business by selling two of the new Pierce “motorettes”. Willys, 27, is an Elmira, N.Y., sporting goods retailer who saw his first automobile (a Winton) on a trip to Cleveland last year and has become a Pierce dealer (see 1902). 
1901 tr tv Daimler T The Mercedes motorcar introduced by German auto maker Gottlieb Daimler is named for the 11-year-old daughter of Emil Jellinek, Austrian consul at Nice. He has offered to buy and distribute 36 Daimlers on condition that the cars be named for Mercedes, thus undertaking to sell nearly an entire year’s production of the motorcars (see 1890; Mercedes-Benz, 1926). 
1902 tr tv Co. T A new Locomobile is introduced with a front-mounted, vertical, four-cylinder, water-cooled engine and is the first U.S. motorcar to use heat-treated steel alloys. 
1902 tr tv Auto T John North Willys sells four Pierce motorcars and obtains the Elmira, N.Y., agency for the Rambler car made at Kenosha, Wis.
1902 tr tv Auto T The first Studebaker motorcar, introduced at South Bend, Ind., is an electric car. Studebaker Bros. has produced more than 750,000 wagons, buggies, and carriages since 1852.
1902 tr tv Auto T The Marmon motorcar, introduced by Indianapolis auto maker Howard C. Marmon, 26, has an air-cooled overhead valve V-twin engine and a revolutionary lubrication system that uses a drilled crankshaft to keep its engine bearings lubricated with oil fed under pressure by a gear pump. Marmon’s father Daniel is a leading producer of milling machinery.
1903 tr tv Ford T Ford Motor Company is incorporated June 16 with $28,000 raised by 12 stockholders who include John and Horace Dodge. Henry Ford receives 225 shares in exchange for his design and 17 patents on its mechanism, production begins in a converted wagon factory on Detroit’s Mack Avenue, and the $750 Model A Ford introduced by the company has a two-cylinder, 8-horsepower chain-drive engine mounted under its seat. The half-ton vehicle has a 72-inch wheelbase, is 99 inches in length overall, its steering wheel is on the right, and 658 will be sold by next March (see Oldfield, 1902; Model T, 1908). 
1903 tr tv Ford T Ford Motor refuses to join a new Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers formed to purchase rights to use the 1895 Selden patent at a royalty of 1.25 percent of the retail price of each automobile sold. Selden will soon be receiving a royalty on nearly every U.S.-made motorcar (see 1899; 1911). 
1903 tr tv Auto T John North Willys sells 20 cars and takes on the De-troit car made by Detroit Auto Vehicle Co. (see 1902; 1907). 
1903 tr tv Auto T The Chadwick motorcar introduced by U.S. engineer Lee Sherman Chadwick is a four-cylinder, 24-horsepower vehicle that goes 60 miles per hour and sells for $4,000 (see 1906). 
1904 tr tv GM T Cadillac Motor Car Co. is created by a reorganization of Detroit Automobile under the aegis of Henry Martyn Leland, 61 (see 1901; General Motors, 1909; self-starter, 1911). 
1904 tr tv Auto T The Pierce Arrow and Great Arrow begin the George N. Pierce Co. on a career as the leading U.S. producer of luxury motorcars (see 1901). The company produces 50 Great Arrows and sells them at $3,000 to $5,000 each (see Glidden Tour, 1905). 
1904 tr tv Auto T The Reo introduced by R. E. Olds has a steering wheel instead of a tiller (see 1901). Olds has left Oldsmobile in a dispute with Frederick Smith on the size and price of motorcars to be produced by the company. 
1905 tr tv Auto T A Stanley Steamer sets a speed record of 127 miles per hour, but its quiet, non-polluting external combustion engine requires a 30-minute warm-up and must take on fresh water every 20 miles (see 1899). 
1905 tr tv GM T The floundering Buick Motorcar Co. started by Flint, Mich., plumbing supply merchant David Dunbar Buick, 50, is taken over by local millionaire William C. Durant whose 19-year-old Durant-Dorn Carriage Co. has made him the richest man in town (see 1906). 
1906 tr tv Auto T Rolls-Royce, Ltd., is incorporated March 16 by English balloonist and motoring enthusiast Charles Stewart Rolls, 29, son of Lord Llangattock, and auto maker Frederick Henry Royce, 43, who has produced an almost silent-running motorcar with a six-cylinder engine that produces from 40 to 50 horsepower. C. S. Rolls and Co. has sold F. H. Royce and Co. motorcars on an exclusive basis for nearly 2 years, the new firm will move from Manchester to Derby in 1908 and will discontinue all previous models to concentrate on the Silver Ghost, a machine that has been driven “14,371 miles nonstop,” has proved that a gasoline-powered car can run as smoothly as a steam-driven car, and will remain in production for 19 years while Rolls-Royce, Ltd., develops a reputation for making the world’s most luxurious motorcars. 
1906 tr tv Auto T The Autocar Co. of Ardmore, Pa., improves its 1897 model by adding acetylene headlights and kerosene side lamps, but like most cars the new model still has a steering rudder not a steering wheel. 
1906 tr tv Auto T The Chadwick Six built by L. S. Chadwick runs more smoothly than any four-cylinder motorcar and will have a major influence on U.S. auto makers (see 1903). Chadwick will quit making four-cylinder cars, incorporate at Pottstown, Pa., in March of next year, road-test the first production model Chadwick Six in April, and sell it at $5,500. He will quit in 1911 but Chadwick motorcars will remain in production until 1915. 
1906 tr tv Auto T The Mack truck is introduced by former Brooklyn, N.Y., wagon builders John, William, and Augustus Mack who have moved to Allentown, Pa., and produced a 10-ton vehicle of considerable power that begins a reputation for “built like a Mack truck” bulldog stamina. 
1907 tr tv Auto T A “valveless” engine perfected by Wisconsin agriculturist Charles Knight has a windowed sleeve between piston and cylinder. He engineers it to cover and uncover inlet and outlet ports, eliminating the valve gear that makes engines noisy with “play” between cams, tappets, and the valves needed to cope with expansion caused by heating (see Willys-Knight, 1915). 
1907 tr tv Bendix T The Bendix Co. is founded by U.S. inventor Vincent Bendix, 25, who left his Moline, Ill., home at age 16 to study mechanics at New York. The Bendix starter drive that Bendix will perfect in the next 5 years will lead to the development of a self-starter for motorcars (see brake, 1912; Kettering, 1911). 
1907 tr tv Auto T Willys-Overland Motors is established by auto dealer John North Willys who buys Overland Automobile of Indianapolis and moves it to the old Pope-Toledo plant at Toledo, Ohio. Willys has opened an auto agency in New York and cannot obtain enough cars to fill his orders (see 1903; 1910). 
1908 tr tv GM T AC Spark Plug Co. is founded by Buick Motor Car president W. C. Durant with French-American motorcycle specialist Albert Champion. 
1908 tr tv Ford T Champion Spark Plug Co. has its beginnings in a Boston garage where Frank D. Stranahan, 26, and his brother Robert Allen, 22, just out of Harvard, begin manufacturing spark plugs, magnetos, coils, and other electrical equipment for motorcars. They will move to Toledo in 1910 and will go into business with Albert Champion under the name Champion. Robert Stranahan will secure an order from Henry Ford, and Champion will be Ford’s sole supplier of spark plugs until 1961. 
1908 tr tv GM T General Motors is created September 16 by W. C. Durant, who brings other auto makers together into a holding company (see 1906). His bankers tell him that Henry Ford’s company is not worth the $8 million in cash that Ford demands, so Ford does not join (see Cadillac, Oakland, 1909; Storrow, 1910). 
1908 tr tv Ford T The Model T Ford introduced August 12 will soon outsell all other motorcars. Ford’s $850.50 “flivver” has a wooden body on a steel frame that makes it “stronger than a horse and easier to maintain.” It comes only in black (see 1903; 1911). 
1909 tr tv GM T General Motors acquires Cadillac from Henry M. Leland for $4.5 million (see 1904). Cadillacs have interchangeable parts, unusual in the fledgling automotive industry (see 1916; self-starter, 1911; Lincoln, 1922). 
1909 tr tv GM T General Motors acquires Oakland Motor Car, which has a factory at Pontiac, Mich., producing motorcars designed by A. P. Brush (see 1924; Pontiac, 1926). 
1909 tr tv Auto T Hudson Motor Car Co. is founded by R. D. Chapin and Howard Earle Coffin, 35, with backing from Detroit department store magnate J. L. Hudson (see 1881). Coffin is a veteran of the Olds Motor Works and has designed the Chalmers motorcar for Chalmers-Detroit Motor Co. (see 1916). 
1910 tr tv Auto T Safety glass is patented by French poet-chemist Edouard Benedictus, who has accidentally knocked over a test tube lined with a film left by evaporation of a nitrocellulose mixture. Benedictus has observed that the cracked glass has not shattered (see Triplex Safety Glass, 1926). 
1910 tr tv Auto T Steel begins to replace wood in U.S. automobile bodies (see Ford Model T, 1908). 
1910 tr tv GM T General Motors directors oust W. C. Durant and replace him with Boston financier James J. Storrow of Lee, Higginson (see 1912; Chevrolet, 1911). 
1911 tr tv Auto T An electric self-starter for motorcar and truck engines invented by C. F. Kettering improves automobile safety. Cadillac boss Henry M. Leland gives Kettering’s Dayton Engineering Laboratories (Delco) a contract to supply 4,000 self-starters after losing a good friend who was killed trying to crank a woman’s balky engine (see Leland, 1909; Ford, 1919; General Motors, 1918). 
1911 tr tv Auto T Electric Auto-Lite Co. is founded at Toledo, Ohio, by Clement O. Miniger to make ignition sets (starting motors, distributors, coils, generators) and spark plugs. By 1929 Electric Auto-Lite will be a major supplier to Ford, Essex, Hudson, Hupmobile, Jordan, Nash, Packard, Peerless, and Pierce and will rival Delco (see 1930). 
1911 tr tv GM T Chevrolet Motor Co. is founded by former General Motors head W. C. Durant (see 1910). He teams up with Swiss-American racing car driver Louis Chevrolet, 32, who has been in the United States since 1901, and they produce the first Chevrolet motorcars in a New York plant at 57th Street and 11th Avenue (see 1915). 
1911 tr tv Ford T Ford Motor Company wins a court decision that the Ford engine is fundamentally different from the G. B. Selden engine on which patents are about to expire anyway. Ford has refused to pay royalties to Selden’s 8-year-old association which has received $5.8 million from other auto makers (Selden himself has received only $200,000, the rest having gone to lawyers, management executives, and the like). 
1912 tr tv Bendix T Bendix Brake Co. is founded by Vincent Bendix, who has begun production of his Bendix starter drive. His new firm will be the first mass producer of four-wheel brakes for motorcars (see 1907; Bendix Aviation, 1929). 
1912 tr tv GM T Buick Division chief Charles William Nash, 48, becomes president of General Motors and brings in American Locomotive Works manager Walter P. Chrysler, 37, to head Buick (see Durant, 1910; Nash Motors, 1916; Chrysler, 1923). 
1913 tr tv GM T Cadillac is the leading make in the $1,500 to $2,500 range and will enter the luxury market next year with a V8 model. 
1913 tr tv Auto T Sales of U.S. luxury motorcars priced from $2,500 to $7,500 reach 18,500 with Packard leading the field (2,300 cars),
1913 tr tv Ford T The assembly line introduced at Ford Motor Company October 7 reduces the time required to assemble a motorcar from 12.5 hours to 1.5 hours. Devised with help from engineer Clarence W. Avery, Ford’s line reverses the disassembling line used by Chicago and Cincinnati meat packers, factories producing a wide variety of products will convert to assembly line production, the line will revolutionize much of industry, but increase worker boredom and permit industry to hire unskilled and semiskilled workers at wages lower than those of skilled workers. 
1913 tr tv Daimler T The Dodge brothers John and Horace break with Ford and become independent while continuing to own stock in Ford which builds a big new plant at Highland Park, Mich. (see 1914; 1919). 
1914 tr tv Daimler T A large Dodge Brothers factory goes up at Hamtramck, Mich., where Horace and John Dodge pioneer in making all-steel-bodied motorcars and achieve immediate success (see 1913). Both brothers will die in 1920. 
1915 tr tv GM T Chevrolet Motor Co. is incorporated in Delaware by W. C. Durant after having sold 16,000 motorcars since 1911. Durant offers General Motors stockholders five shares of Chevrolet stock for every share of GM, whose stock is being acquired in the open market by Pierre S. du Pont; GM stock climbs from 82 January 2 to a high for the year of 558 
1915 tr tv Auto T Willys-Overland produces 91,780 motorcars, up from 18,200 in 1910, and is the world’s second largest auto maker. Willys has absorbed several other firms and its sales are helped by the patented Willys-Knight sleeve-valve engine that employs two simple sleeves in each cylinder, moving silently up and down on a film of oil without springs, valves, or camshafts (see 1907). 
1916 tr tv GM T General Motors will absorb the manufacturing facil-ities of W. C. Durant’s Chevrolet Co. (see 1915). It will also absorb the Hyatt Roller Bearing Co., whose chief Alfred P. Sloan, 43, is a protégé of Cadillac’s Henry M. Leland; Delco, whose C. F. Kettering is a friend of Leland (see 1911); and New Departure Manufacturing, a producer of roller bearings (see Fisher Body, 1918). 
1916 tr tv Ford T Henry Ford buys a site on Detroit’s River Rouge for a gigantic new motorcar plant. Ford’s Model T gets 20 miles per gallon of gasoline. 
1916 tr tv Auto T Nash Motors is founded by former GM chief Charles W. Nash, who purchases the Thomas B. Jeffery Co. of Kenosha, Wis., which started making bicycles in 1879 and introduced the Rambler motorcar in 1902. 
1916 tr tv Auto T The first mechanically operated windshield wipers are introduced in the United States. Electric windshield wipers will not be produced until 1923. 
1916 tr tv Auto T The Hudson Super-Six is introduced by the 7-year-old Hudson Motor Car Co. which sells 26,000 vehicles and becomes the leading U.S. maker of high-priced motorcars (see closed sedan, 1922). 
1916 tr tv Auto T The Marmon 34 priced at $2,700 and up is introduced with a “scientific lightweight” engine of aluminum. Designed by Howard Marmon with his Hungarian-American engineer Fred Moskovics and Alanson P. Brush, its only cast-iron engine components are its cylinder sleeves and one-piece “firing head.” Body, fenders, hood, transmission case, differential housing, clutch cone wheel, and radiator shell are all of aluminum, but the car has problems and is unable to compete with the new Cadillac V8. 
1918 tr tv GM T General Motors acquires a controlling interest in Detroit’s Fisher Body Co., which will become a GM division (see 1916). 
1918 tr tv Ford T Henry Ford’s Stout Air Line has been the first airline to carry mail but Ford’s refusal to open his Detroit airport on Sundays hampers operations. 
1919 tr tv GM F Frigidaire is selected as the name of a new refrigerator produced by W. C. Durant’s General Motors which has paid $56,000 to acquire Guardian Refrigerator Co., a one-man firm that was close to bankruptcy. The name has come out of a contest sponsored by GM, which will make Frigidaire almost a generic term for refrigerator. 
1919 tr tv GM T General Motors Acceptance Corp. (GMAC) is founded by GM, now 28.7 percent owned by du Pont interests. The GM subsidiary will become the world’s largest automobile financing company (see 1939). 
1919 tr tv Ford T Henry Ford assumes full control of the now enormous Ford Motor Company. Ford has lost a lawsuit brought by stockholders who include the Dodge brothers but he takes all his capital plus some borrowed funds and buys up all the outstanding shares in the company, paying more than $105 million, and returning roughly $12.5 million for every $5,000 invested in 1908 (see 1920). 
1919 tr tv Auto T The Duesenberg brothers set up shop at Indianapolis to make motorcars after selling John North Willys the war plant at Elizabeth, N.J., they set up to build aviation engines and a 160-horsepower tractor engine (see 1913; 1922; Willys, 1915; Durant, 1921). 
1921 tr tv Auto T Generators become standard equipment on Model T Fords which account for 61.34 percent of all U.S. motorcars sold. 
1921 tr tv Auto U U.S. chemist Thomas Midgley, 32, discovers the antiknock properties of tetraethyl lead as a gasoline additive; General Motors helps him establish the Ethyl Corp. (see 1923). 
1921 tr tv GM T Durant Motors, Inc., is founded by W. C. Durant who has again been forced out of General Motors but has raised $7 million to start a new venture (see 1916). Durant acquires the Bridgeport, Conn., plant of the bankrupt Locomobile Co. to build a Durant luxury car that will supplement the $850 Durant Four and the medium-priced Durant Six made at Muncie, Ind., and he pays $5.25 million to acquire the Willys plant at Elizabethport, N.J., which is the world’s most modern auto factory (see Duesenberg, 1919). Willys-Overland has gone bankrupt and its receivers sell Durant the Willys design for a new medium-priced Flint motorcar that Durant intends to market (see Star, 1922; Willys-Overland, 1936). 
1921 tr tv GM T GM’s share of the U.S. motorcar market reaches 12 percent; the company begins a rapid expansion under the leadership of Alfred Sloan. 
1922 tr tv Ford T Ford Motor Company president Edsel Ford pays $12 million to acquire the Lincoln Motor Co. started last year by Cadillac founder Henry M. Leland 
1922 tr tv GM T General Motors gives control of its Chevrolet divi-sion to Danish-American engineer William Knudsen, 43, who has left Ford. Using mass assembly methods and Du Pont paints in a variety of colors, Knudsen will soon overtake Ford’s black Model T (see Model A, 1927). 
1923 tr tv Auto U Ethyl Corp. introduces tetraethyl lead as a fuel additive (see Midgley, 1921). The lead is mixed three parts to two with ethylene dibromine, a derivative of bromine, to eliminate engine “knock” and yet leave no lead deposit in an engine (see Dow, 1924). 
1923 tr tv Auto T Major U.S. auto makers inaugurate annual model style changes that make older models stylistically obsolete in a move that will force smaller companies out of the market and prevent new ones from entering. Forty-three U.S. companies will be making motorcars by 1926, there will be only 10 by 1935, and no new domestic manufacturer will crack the market successfully after this year (see Kaiser, 1946). Planned obsolescence will be a major part of automotive marketing. 
1923 tr tv Daimler T Walter P. Chrysler becomes president of a reorganized Maxwell Motor Co. and begins to develop a line of innovative new motorcars (see Buick, 1912). Now 48, Chrysler quit his position as president of Buick division 3 years ago in a dispute with General Motors president W. C. Durant and has helped reorganize Willys-Overland (see 1924). 
1924 tr tv Daimler T The first Chrysler motorcar, introduced by Maxwell Motor Co., has four-wheel hydraulic brakes, a high compression engine, and other engineering advances (see 1923, 1925). 
1924 tr tv Auto T Chicago executive E. L. (Erret Lobban) Cord, 30, joins Auburn Automobile, gives its unsold inventory of 700 cars some cosmetic touch-ups, nets $500,000, and breathes new life into the company which is now owned by Chicago financiers including William Wrigley, Jr., but producing only six cars per day. Cord will double sales next year, introduce a new model, outperform and undersell the competition, and become president of Auburn in 1926 (see Duesenberg, 1926; 8–115, 1928). 
1924 tr tv Auto U Ethyl Corp.’s Thomas Midgley, Jr., and C. F. Kettering of General Motors make a deal with Dow Chemical to obtain 100,000 pounds of ethylene dibromide per month at 58¢ lb. Ethyl combines the chemical with tetraethyl lead to make a gasoline additive that eliminates engine knock (see 1923). 
1924 tr tv Auto T Ford produces nearly 2 million Model T motorcars for the second year in a row and drops the price of a new touring car to a low of $290, making a durable automobile available to Americans even of modest means. More than half the cars in the world are Model T Fords (see 1926; Model A, 1927). 
1924 tr tv Auto T Oakland automobiles made by General Motors become the first cars finished with DuPont Duco paints, which cut days off the time required to paint a car (see 1909; Du Pont, 1915; Pontiac, 1926). 
1925 tr tv Auto K Synthetic rubber is pioneered by Belgian-American clergyman-chemist Julius Arthur Nieuwland, 47, at Notre Dame University. Nieuwland passes acetylene gas through a solution of ammonium chloride and gas and his casual reference to the resulting product will inspire Du Pont chemists to develop a product that Du Pont will introduce in 1931 under the name DuPrene (see Semon, 1926). 
1925 tr tv Auto T Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors produce at least 80 percent of U.S. motorcars and will increase their share of the market. 
1925 tr tv Ford T Henry Ford has 10,000 U.S. dealers, up from 3,500 in 1912. Each agency is required to stock at least one of each of the 5,000 parts in a Model T (43 percent of the parts retail for 15 cents each or less). 
1925 tr tv Ford T Henry Ford inaugurates commercial air service between Detroit and Chicago April 13. 
1925 tr tv Ford T Most Ford dealers receive their cars knocked down since seven knocked-down cars can be shipped in the railroad boxcar space required for only two assembled cars and a good mechanic can assemble the Model T in half a day. A new Ford roadster sells for $260 F.O.B. Detroit. 
1926 tr tv Auto T Waltham, Mass., inventor Francis Wright Davis, 38, patents a power-steering unit and installs it in a 1921 Pierce-Arrow Runabout, but commercial production of cars with power steering will not begin until 1951. 
1926 tr tv Auto T E. L. Cord’s Auburn Automobile Co. acquires Duesenberg Automobile and Motor Co. (see 1924; Model J, 1929). 
1926 tr tv Ford J Ford Motor Company plants introduce an 8-hour day and a 5-day work week beginning September 5. 
1926 tr tv Greyhound T Greyhound Corp. is incorporated to compete with intercity passenger rail service (see 1922). General Motors will be the largest Greyhound stockholder until 1948 (see 1929). 
1926 tr tv Daimler T The Chrysler Imperial is a luxury model that will compete with Cadillac, Lincoln, Packard, and Pierce-Arrow. 
1926 tr tv Ford T The Model T Ford sells for $350 new with a self-starter but is losing ground to GM’s Chevrolet (see 1922; Model A, 1927). 
1926 tr tv GM T The Pontiac motorcar introduced by General Motors is a renamed Oakland (see 1924). 
1926 tr tv Auto T The Triplex Safety Glass Co. of North America is founded by U.S. entrepreneur Amory L. Haskell who has obtained U.S. rights to the 1910 patent of Edouard Benedictus. Haskell begins production on one floor of the Lipton Tea factory at Hoboken, N.J., and receives assistance from Henry Ford to build his own factory, but the initial price of safety glass is $8.80 per square foot and it costs a Cadillac owner $200 to replace all the glass in his car with safety glass (see 1927; Sloan, 1929). 
1927 tr tv Ford T Ford introduces the Model A to succeed the Model T that has been the U.S. standard for nearly 20 years. U.S. auto production falls to 3,093,428, down nearly 900,000 from 1926 on account of Ford’s stoppage for retooling to produce a car that will compete with Chevrolet. Henry Ford and his son Edsel, now 34, drive the 15 millionth Ford out of the Ford plant. 
1927 tr tv Ford T The end of the Model T deals a heavy blow to the 18-year-old Western Auto Supply Co. whose $11.5 million in annual sales derive largely from Model T parts. The company has 31 retail stores and will become a vast retail chain enterprise dealing not only in automobile parts but also in hardware, cheap watches, flashlights, electrical appliances, and drugstore items (see Pepperdine College, 1937). 
1928 tr tv Daimler T The DeSoto, introduced by Chrysler, is a medium-priced car that will remain in production until 1961. 
1929 tr tv Bendix T Vincent Bendix founds Bendix Aviation; he will merge his various aviation, motorcar, and radio equipment-making firms into the new corporation (see 1912; Bendix Trophy
1929 tr tv Ford T Ford introduces the first station wagon, equipping a Model A with a boxy wooden body that provides extra space for cargo and passengers. 
1929 tr tv GM T General Motors buys the German Opel Motorcar Co. founded in 1898. 
1929 tr tv GM T General Motors president Alfred P. Sloan opposes a suggestion by Lammot du Pont, 49, that Chevrolets be equipped with safety glass (see Duplate, 1927). GM’s Cadillacs and La Salles have recently been equipped with Duplate glass but Sloan points out that Packards have not been equipped with safety glass and their sales have not suffered. “I do not think that from the stockholder’s viewpoint the move on Cadillac’s part has been justified,” writes Sloan. 
1929 tr tv Auto T The first motorcar with front-wheel drive is introduced by E. L. Cord’s Auburn Automobile Company (see 1928). 
1930 tr tv GM T A 16-cylinder Cadillac is introduced by General Motors, whose founder is sold out by his bankers as Wall Street prices collapse again. W. C. Durant liquidated his fortune in common stocks early last year but plunged back into the market when prices plummeted, his Durant Motors will be liquidated in 1933, and Durant will be personally bankrupt by 1936. 
1930 tr tv GM T General Motors acquires two locomotive manufacturing companies that will give GM a virtual monopoly in the market (see 1961). 
1931 tr tv GM F Frigidaire division of General Motors adopts Freon 12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) refrigerant gas, invented by Thomas Midgley of Ethyl Corp. and C. F. Kettering of GM and produced by a Du Pont-GM subsidiary. Most other refrigerator makers follow suit, replacing ammonia and other more dangerous gases. 
1931 tr tv Auto E U.S. motorcar sales collapse and Detroit lays off another 100,000 workers, reducing employment in auto plants to 250,000, down from 475,000 in 1929. Two out of three Detroit workers (and eight out of ten Detroit blacks) are totally or partially unemployed, and while the situation will improve unemployment will remain high in Detroit until 1942 (see 1933). 
1932 tr tv Ford T Ford halts production of its Model A, introduced in 1927, as it tools up to introduce the first low-priced V8. Ford loses millions of dollars and lays off workers to reduce payroll costs from $145 million (1929) to $32 million (1933). 
1932 tr tv GM T General Motors forms a subsidiary to acquire electric streetcar companies, convert them to GM motorbus operation, and resell them to local entrepreneurs who will agree to buy only GM buses as replacement vehicles (see New York, 1936; conspiracy conviction, 1949). 
1933 tr tv GM T General Motors gains control of North American Aviation, a holding company that controls Curtiss-Wright, Sperry Gyroscope, Ford Instrument, Berliner-Joyce Aircraft, and Eastern Air Transport and is a major stockholder in most other important U.S. aviation companies (see 1934). 
1936 tr tv Auto T Willys-Overland is reorganized and renews production of low-priced motorcars (see 1915; Durant, 1921; Jeep, 1940). 
1937 tr tv Ford F Ford Motor Company scientists trying to develop a synthetic wool fiber produce soy protein “analogs” that will be used as substitutes for bacon and other animal protein foods. They spin a textile filament from soybean protein and create a vegetable protein that can be flavored to taste much like any animal protein food (see 1949; Boyer, 1933). 
1937 tr tv GM T General Motors introduces an automatic transmission for automobiles under the name Hydramatic Drive as optional equipment for 1938 Oldsmobiles. Similar transmissions have been used on London buses for 12 years and will be employed increasingly on U.S. passenger cars, first as optional equipment, then as standard. 
1937 tr tv GM J General Motors recognizes the United Automobile Workers (UAW) as sole bargaining agent for workers in all GM plants February 11. GM takes the action to end the union’s 44-day sit-down strike at Flint, but 4,470 other strikes idle plants nationwide, and most are sit-down strikes. 
1937 tr tv Ford J Henry Ford says, “We’ll never recognize the United Auto Workers Union or any other union”; he employs a “service department” of 600 goons armed with guns and blackjacks to prevent unionizing of Ford workers (see 1932). 
1938 tr tv Co. T General Motors joins with Standard Oil of California to organize Pacific Coast Lines, a firm that will convert West Coast electric street railways into motorbus lines (see 1932; 1939). 
1939 tr tv Auto K U.S. chemist Bradley Dewey opens a pilot plant for making synthetic rubber (see food canning, 1921). He has conducted research on rubber-like elastomers and will complete one of the first U.S. synthetic rubber plants in 1942 (see Semon, 1926; Goodrich tire, 1940). 
1939 tr tv Auto T The U.S. Department of Justice indicts General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler for attempting to monopolize automobile financing by allegedly coercing dealers to use GMAC, Ford, or Chrysler financing facilities (see GMAC, 1919). The indictments against Ford and Chrysler are dropped in exchange for promises that they will stop coercing their dealers if GM is convicted, but while that conviction will be handed down in 1941, GM will not be required to give up its GMAC subsidiary, nor will Ford or Chrysler have to divest itself of its financing subsidiary. By the mid-1950s, GMAC will be the world’s largest auto-financing company, averaging 18.7 percent per year in net profits. 
1940 tr tv Auto T The Jeep, designed by Karl K. Pabst, consulting engineer to Bantam Car Co. of Butler, Pa., is a lightweight, four-wheel-drive, general-purpose (GP) field vehicle powered by a four-cylinder Continental engine. The U.S. Army places orders for 70 pre-production models, Ford and Willys-Overland both submit prototype models for testing by the army in November, the Willys MB design will be accepted as standard in the summer of 1941, both companies will get contracts, and they will turn out nearly 649,000 Jeeps in the next 5 years, with Willys completing a new Jeep every 80 seconds at the peak of its production (see 1945). 
1946 tr tv Kaiser T Kaiser-Frazer automobiles are introduced in a venture that will mark the last major bid to challenge the established
1948 tr tv Auto T The first automobile air conditioner goes on the market. The crude affair is designed to be installed under the dashboard;
1948 tr tv Auto T Michelin Cie. introduces the world’s first radial tires. 
1949 tr tv GM T General Motors, Standard Oil of California, Firestone Tire, and other companies are convicted of criminal conspiracy to
1954 tr tv Daimler T American Motors Corp. (AMC) is created by a merger of Hudson Motor Car and Nash-Kelvinator (see 1922; Rambler,
1954 tr tv Auto T Studebaker-Packard Corp. is created by a merger (see 1930; 1964). 
1955 tr tv Law T President Eisenhower submits a 10-year $101-billion highway program to Congress (see 1956). 
1955 tr tv GM T General Motors introduces the first Chevrolet V8, but half of all new cars have six-cylinder engines which are superior
1957 tr tv Auto U The Wankel engine has only two moving parts and while it consumes slightly more fuel than conventional engines, it is
1957 tr tv Auto U The Wankel rotary engine produced at Lindau on Lake Constance by German engineer Fritz Wankel, 55, is the first new
1964 tr tv Ford T The Mustang, introduced by Ford Motor Company, is a sporty compact that is essentially a Falcon with different
1979 tr tv Daimler T The Chrysler Loan Guarantee Bill passed by Congress December 27 saves the 54-year-old auto maker, America’s
1990 tr tv GM T The Saturn car introduced by General Motors in October challenges Japanese auto makers, who have taken one third of