Information Technology Timeline
Key Year IBM  USA International
ma -1900 The first place-value number system
ma 100 The first use of zero and negative numbers
ma 1300 William of Ockham's logical transformations
i 1434 The first self-striking water clock
i 1500 Leonardo da Vinci's mechanical calculator
i 1600 John Napier and Napier's Bones
i 1621 The invention of the slide rulefrom Gunter, Oughtred improvements
i 1625 Wilhelm Schickard's mechanical calculator
i 1640 Blaise Pascal's Arithmetic Machine
i 1658 Pascal digital calculator and mathematical studies
i 1694 mechanical calculator of Gottfried Leibnitz
o 1714 The first English typewriter patent
ma 1761 Leonhard Euler's geometric system for problems in class logic
t 1792 invention of wireless semaphore telegraph by Claude Chappe, 
s 1804 Jacquard's automatic loom using punched cards
c 1822 Charles Babbage's Difference Engine
o 1829 The first American typewriter patent
t 1829 Sir Charles Wheatstone invents the accordion
c 1830 Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine
c 1834 Georg and Edward Scheutz's Difference Engine
t 1837 demonstration of telegraph by Cooke and Wheatstone
t 1841 invention by Wheatstone of the first type printing telegraph
o 1842 Facsimile transmission (Fax) was first pioneered by Alexander Bain and patented as chemical telegraph
t 1844 first operation of Samuel Morse telegraph between New-York and Philadelphia
ma 1847 George Boole invents Boolean Algebra
o 1848 facsimile demonstrated by Bakewell
t 1857 Sir Charles Wheatstone uses paper tape to store data
e 1860 Sir Joseph Wilson Swan's first experimental light bulb
t 1865 foundation of Anglo-American Telegraph Company by John Pender 
t 1866 operation of a transatlantic telegraph cable between Valentia (Ireland) and Newfoundland after an initial attempt failed in 1858
o 1867 The first commercial typewriter
i 1869 William Stanley Jevons invents the Jevons' Logic Machine
o 1869 Elisha Gray and Enos N. Barton found Gray & Barton company at Cleveland OH
t 1872 filing by Antonio Meucci of an invention notice to operate a telephone , not  renewed after 1873
t 1872 Gray and Barton renamed Western Electric Manufacturing Company in Chicago
o 1873 Invention of QWERTY keyboard on typewriters by Christopher Sholes
o 1873 Sholes'  patents were acquired by the rifle arms producer Remington Rand.
i 1876 George Barnard Grant's Difference Engine
t 1876 Alexander Graham Bell files a telephone patent "Improvements in Transmitters and Receivers for Electric Telegraph"
t 1876 formation by Thomas Sanders, Gardiner G. Hubbard and Alexander Graham Bell of the Bell Patent Association
av 1877 invention of microphone by Hugues
t 1877 foundation of  Bell Telephone Company, that had then 778 telephone subscribers
o 1878 The first shift-key typewriter
t 1878 creation of American Speaking Telephone Company by Western Union to compete with Bell Telephone Company
t 1878 Theodore Vail named Bell Telephone Company  CEO
e 1879 creation of Thomson-Houston by Elihu Thomson and Edwin M. Houston
e 1879 Robert Harley publishes article on the Stanhope Demonstrator
t 1879 creation of National Bell Telephone Company to provide service in all the US, based on Elisha Gray's patents
t 1880 The invention of the Baudot Code
ma 1881 Allan Marquand's rectangular logic diagrams and machine
t 1882 agreement between Western Electric and American Bell, by which Western Electric will be exclusive supplier of Bell 
e 1883 Thomas Alva Edison discovers the Edison Effect
c 1884 Hermann Hollerith files a patent on electromechanical tabulation
c 1884 Foundation of NCR National Cash Register by John Patterson
r 1884 incorporation of G.Binswanger and Company, in London for reselling electrical goods. it will eventually become GEC then Marconi
e 1886 Charles Pierce links Boolean algebra to circuits based on switches
c 1887 Introduction of Comptometer by Felt & Tarrant Co of Chicago
e 1887 discovery of electromagnetic waves by Heinrich Hertz
c 1889 the U.S.Census Office selects Hollerith's punched card proposal for the 1890 Census
ma 1890 John Venn invents Venn Diagrams
e 1892 foundation of General Electric by a merge between Thomson-Houston and Edison General Electric Company
r 1895 first wireless transmission by Guglielmo Marconi
c 1896 incorporation of Hollerith's business into Tabulating Machine Company (TMC), development of an automatic card sorter
tv 1897 invention of CRT Cathode-Ray Tube by Karl-Ferdinand Braun
r 1899 creation of Wireless Telegraph Company of America by G. Marconi
t 1899 AT&T becomes the holding company of Bell system
r 1900 John Ambrose Fleming invents vacuum tube
r 1901 first transatlantic radiotelegraph message by Marconi between London and Newfoundland
c 1902 Hollerith develops a tabulator with automatic card feed. The reader pin-box was vertical using mercury cups contacts.
e 1902 invention of photo-electric cell by Arthur Korn in Germany
t 1902 The first teleprinters
c 1905 American Arithmometer Company changed name to Burroughs Adding Machine Company, headquartered at Detroit MI
c 1906 introduction of Hollerith Type I tabulator and of vertical sorter
c 1906 Mark Honeywell, in Wabash Indiana, founds Honeywell Heating Specialty Co, inc to manufacture heated water generators
e 1906 Lee de Forest invents the Triode
c 1910 Elmer Sperry founds Sperry Gyroscope
c 1911 H. Hollerith sells TMC to Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company. His own shares were paid $1 million.
c 1911 incorporation of Computing Tabulating-Recording-Company in New-York
o 1912 CTR's time recording division's plant at Endicott NY starts to  produce tabulators
e 1913 Wiliam Coolidge from General Electric invents the X-Ray tube at Niskayuna, close to Schenectady NY
c 1914 Thomas J. Watson joins CTR as general manager, coming from NCR.
o 1914 Powers introduces a printing tabulator
t 1915 first transcontinental telephone line
o 1917 Introduction of an electric reset of the tabulator's accumulators. Introduction of a verifier machine, to control keypunches
g 1919 the Bell system returns to the private sector
r 1919 incorporation of Radio Corporation of America (RCA) using General Electric and Marconi patents
t 1919 introduction of first machine switching exchange by Bell at Norfolk VA
m 1920 foundation of Fairchild Aerial Company by Sherman Mills Fairchild in New-York
e 1922 foundation of Raytheon by Laurence Marshall and Vannevar Bush, at Cambridge, as American Appliance; it becomes Raytheon in 1925
o 1922 Powers introduces an alphabetic printer
c 1924 CTR changes its name into International Business Machines (IBM)
c 1925 Introduction of 400cpm IBM Type 80 horizontal  sorter, designed by Ford, rehired in 1923
e 1925 introduction of Raytheon "gaseous rectifier"
t 1925 Western Electric Research Laboratories become Bell Telephone Laboratories, international sold to ITT
tv 1925 first demonstration of television on a CRT tube in Germany
m 1926 First patent for a semiconductor transistor
r 1926 creation of NBC National Broadcasting Corporation, a subsidiary of RCA
c 1927 incorporation of Remington Rand by combining Remington Typewriter Company, Rand Kardex Bureau, Inc., the Dalton Adding Machine Company, the Safe Cabinet Company, and the Powers Accounting Machine Corporation
c 1927 Minneapolis Heat Regulator Company and Honeywell Heating Specialty Co. merged to form the Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co
c 1928 operation of the Differential analyzer at MIT by Vanevar Bush
o 1928 Introduction of 80-columns card format, using rectangular punched holes, in numeric form only.. Replacement of 45-columns round holes cards Introduction of IBM 301 Accounting Machine (type IV tabulator), featuring handling of negative numbers by automatic recomplementation on X row operating at 100 cpm
r 1928 creation of Galvin Manufacturing Corporation , the future Motorola, by Paul Galvin in Chicago, after acquisition of bankrupt Stewart Storage Battery Company,
tv 1928 invention of cathode-ray tube by Vladimir Zworykin future leader of RCA
c 1929 Delivery of a IBM Difference Engine, designed by Bryce and Daly for the University of Columbia statistical bureau
tv 1929 first demo of color TV at Bell Labs in New York
m 1930 discovery of silicon semi-conductor properties by H J Zeeman (Netherlands)
o 1930 extension of 80-columns card format to alphanumeric data by IBM
r 1930 David Sarnoff named CEO of RCA
t 1930 acquisition of Teletype  Corp by Bell Systems
o 1931 introduction of the first IBM alphabetical accounting machine, designed at Varick Street and manufactured at Endicott.
t 1931 AT&T Company introduces public teletypewriter exchange service, TWX
o 1932 establishment of Service Bureau Corporation, a subsidiary of IBM
o 1933 introduction by IBM of removable plugboards panels
o 1933 introduction of the automatic cross-footing multiplying punch later named IBM Type 601 electric multiplier
c 1934 acquisition of Time-O-Stat Controls Corporation by Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator
g 1934 Communications Act establishes a regulation by the FCC Federal Communications Commission instead of Interstate Commerce Commission
c 1936 Alan Turing describes a Universal Turing machine
i 1936 Benjamin Burack constructs the first electrical logic machine
mc 1936 foundation of Telex, Inc to manufacture hearing aids
o 1936 Introduction of first IBM typewriter
e 1937 William Hansen and Sigurd and Russell Varian  develop the klystron tube, at Stanford
o 1937 introduction of IBM Type 77 collator, the first of this kind.
c 1938 Howard Aiken Harvard University made specs for computer ASCC IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator at IBM and Mk 1 by Harvard
c 1938 Zuse Z1 built by Konrad Zuse
e 1938 founding of Hewlett-Packard by William Hewlett and David Packard, partnership incorporated in August 18th 1947
g 1938 establishment of code-breakers service at Bletchley Park (UK) where the Colossus computer was designed
c 1939 John Vincent Atanasoff's special-purpose electronic digital computer
tv 1939 first RCA television
tc 1940 Broad band carrier systems introduced
tc 1940 The first example of remote computing
e 1941 foundation of RCA David Sarnoff laboratory in Princeton NJ
c 1942 Prototype of an electronic multiplier by Phelps at IBM Endicott
av 1944 foundation of Ampex by Alexander Poniatoff in San Carlos CA
c 1944 ASCC was designed at Endicott under Clair Lake and was a huge relay technology scientific computer 
c 1944 delivery of Aberdeen Relay Calculator by IBM, also a relay technology computer.
c 1944 IBM performs special work on card machines to be installed at Aberdeen Proving Ground, discovered in 1946 to be ENIAC.
g 1944 Build up of the Colossus special computer at Bletchey Park, UK by Max Newman & Tommy Flowers 
m 1944 Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation is separated from Fairchild industries
c 1945 first operation of ENIAC
c 1945 publication of First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC by John Von Neumann, operational in 1951.
e 1945 discovery of microwave cooking by Raytheon's Percy Spencer
c 1946 Demonstration of IBM 604 calculator, first electronic calculator in batch production, delivered in fall 1948
c 1946 Introduction of IBM 603 electronic multiplier
c 1946 inauguration of ENIAC, first electronic computer built by the Moore School of Penn by J Presper Eckert, John Mauchly and others
c 1946 John von Neumann starts the design of computers at the Institute of Advanced Studies in Princeton.
c 1946 resignation of Eckert and Mauchly from University of Pennsylvania on a patent conflict
e 1946 foundation of Stanford Research Institute (SRI) at Stanford University
s 1946 Konrad Zuse invents Plankalkul programming language
tc 1946 Mobile Telephone service developed by SouthWestern Bell and AT&T on 150MHz band in Saint Louis MI
tv 1946 introduction of RCA Orthicon TV camera developed at Princeton
c 1947 Howard Aiken builds Harvard Mark II using Magnetic Drum storage
m 1947 discovery of transistor by Willian Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain in Bell Laboratories, Nobel price 1956
m 1947 First point-contact transistor
av 1948 first audio-recording at ABC using Ampex Model 200 tape audio-recorder
c 1948 first delivery of IBM 604 Electronic Calculating Punch,also named Electronic Calculator
c 1948 The first commercial computer -- UNIVAC
e 1948 foundation of the Rand Corporation , a non-profit organization , 
e 1948 foundation of Varian Associates by Sigurd and Russel Varian, to develop microwave equipment
c 1949 EDSAC performs it's first calculation
c 1949 delivery of EDVAC by Moore School of U of Pennsylvania to Ballistic Research Laboratory
c 1949 Introduction of Remington-Rand model 409 business computer at Rowayton by Loring Crosman.Model 409 was shipped to IRS in 1952
r 1949 Daniel E. Noble launches a Motorola research and development facility in Phoenix, AZ
s 1949 The first assembler -- "Initial Orders"
c 1950 Acquisition of Eckert and Mauchly EMCC by Remington-Rand that became the Univac division of that company
m 1950 First bipolar junction transistor
s 1950 development of FlowMatic by Grace Hopper, initially A0 language
sa 1950 Bank of America contracts with  Stanford Research Institute for an experimental system to handle checks
tv 1950 Commercial color television  by RCA/NBC is first broadcast in the United States
c 1951 IBM decision to build a high performance scientific computer, the Defense Calculator
c 1951 fist delivery of UNIVAC to the U.S. Census Bureau, formally accepted in June 1951
o 1951 foundation of Wang Laboratories Inc by An Wang, from MIT, an inventor of ferrite core memory.
s 1951 invention of microprogrammed architecture by Maurice Wilkes at Cambridge University UK
sa 1951 creation of Lyons Electronic Office (LEO) computer
c 1952 establishment of IBM Research laboratory at San Jose CA
c 1952 UNIVAC, used by CBS,  successfully predicts the election of Dwight D. Eisenhower as president
m 1952 G.W.A. Dummer conceives integrated circuits
m 1952 Texas Instruments buys a Western Electric license to manufacture transistors
t  1952 introduction of line-answering device by Bell system
c 1953 introduction of IBM 701 Defense Calculator, designed by Nathaniel Rochester
c 1953 installation of Burroughs UDEC Universal Digital Electronic Computer at Wayne University
c 1953 introduction of Univac 60/120, successor of Model 409 and predecessor of Univac 1004
cp 1953 introduction of IBM 650 magnetic drum computer
e 1953 foundation of Ramo Wooldridge by  ex-Hughes employees Simon Ramo and Dean Wooldridge
c 1954 introduction of IBM 704 scientific computer, Gene Amdahl chief designer introduction of IBM 726 tape unit at 100bpi, 75 ips
c 1954 introduction of Univac 1103A
m 1954 Bell Telephone delivers TRADIC, the first fully transistorized computer
m 1954 Texas Instruments announces first commercially available transistors
pc 1954 foundation of Commodore, a typewriter repair service by Jack Tramiel in New-York
t 1954 introduction of Speakerphone by Bell
c 1955 operation of RAMAC random-access method of accounting and control in San Jose with 5M char drive on 50 disks
c 1955 Honeywell and Raytheon establish a joint venture named Datamatic Corp
c 1955 Sperry takes over Remington Rand (including UNIVAC) and becomes Sperry Rand
m 1955 foundation of William Shockley's Semiconductor Laboratory in Shockley Transistor
sa 1955 Installation of the first ERMA system by SRI at Bank of America at Palo Alto CA
sa 1955 foundation of LEO Computers Ltd by J. Lyons to market automatic office computers, derived from a Cambridge University design
tc 1955 initial tests of electronic switching at Morris IL by Bell
av 1956 Ampex introduces its first video-tape recorder VRX-1000
av 1956 first experiment of picture phone by Bell Labs
c 1956 Thomas J Watson Jr. becomes IBM CEO
c 1956 introduction of Burroughs E101 small computer
c 1956 SDC will become a for-profit company in 1966 and was acquired by Burroughs in 1980
g 1956 consent decree to settle 1952 IBM antitrust suit: specified IBM's patents policy, making public the punched cards manufacturing know-how
o 1956 Introduction of E13B MICR (magnetic ink character recognition)
s 1956 Spin-off of Systems Development Corporation established for SAGE support, from the Rand Corporation
sa 1956 General Electric receives letter of intent of Bank of America for ERMA system
c 1957 departure of Seymour Cray from Univac to Control Data
c 1958 first delivery of RCA 501
c 1958 introduction of Honeywell H-800
e 1958 Thompson Products merge with Ramo-Wooldridge forming TRW Thomson Ramo-Wooldridge
g 1958 creation of DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
m 1958 first integrated circuit of Jack Kilby from Texas Instruments, with 5 Germanium devices
m 1958 formation of Fairchild Semiconductor at Mountain View CA under Robert Noyce
s 1958 release of Fortran II integrating assembly language subroutines
s 1958 Algol (initially International Algebraic Language) report published by Peter Naur, Alan Perlis and Samuelson.
sa 1958 delivery of ERMA system by General Electric at Bank of America, accepted 14 Sep 1959 in Los Angeles
sa 1958 shipment by General Electric of first ERMA system to Bank of America
c 1959 introduction of IBM 1620 small scientific computer, code-named CADET
m 1959 Fairchild Semiconductors shows an integrated circuit made of aluminum wires on silicon device
o 1959 acquisition of Underwood by Olivetti
o 1959 introduction of Xerox first commercial copier
s 1959 creation of Ken Iverson's A Programming Language APL
s 1959 creation of COBOL by Codasyl (Conference on Data Systems Languages), under Grace Hopper, from US Navy, leadership
s 1959 foundation of Computer Sciences(CSC) by Fletcher Jones and Roy Nutt, on the base of a contract with Honeywell for a FACT compiler
c 1960 introduction of IBM 1410 business medium-scale computer initially designed at Endicott
c 1960 introduction of IBM 609 transistorized electronic calculator
c 1960 first shipment of Honeywell H-800
c 1960 General Electric ships to NCR its first NCR304 evolved from ERMA project
c 1960 introduction of CDC 160 small computer
cs 1960 first delivery of DEC PDP-1 Programmed Data Processor to BBN designed since August 1959 by Benjamin Gurley and Dick Best
m 1960 Shockley Transistor Corporation sold to Clecite it will be resold to ITT in 1963 and dissolved in 1968.
tc 1960 AT&T introduces the Bell Dataphone modem at 200 bds
c 1961 formation of IBM Components Division with plant in East Fishkill NY and later in Burlington VT
c 1961 IBM assembles the SPREAD task force to design a New Product Line, that will become the System 360
c 1961 introduction of IBM 1419 an E13B magnetic character reader/sorter 
c 1961 introduction of Burroughs B-5000 designed in Pasadena
c 1961 Shipment of IBM 7030 to Los Alamos
o 1961 introduction of IBM Selectric "golfball" typewriter
s 1961 introduction of Report Programming Language on IBM 1401
s 1961 foundation of SDS Scientific Data Systems by Max Palevsky (ex-Packard-Bell)
tc 1961 Bell proposed a new service called TELPAK which would create "electronic highways"
g 1962 Bell loses its suit against Sperry Univac on challenge of ENIAC patents
m 1962 First field-effect transistor
pc 1962 Raytheon buys Packard-Bell computers that was then introducing PB-440
ss 1962 creation of EDS Electronics Data Systems by Ross Dallas TX
av 1963 introduction of audio-cassette by Philips
c 1963 acquisition of Bendix computers by CDC
c 1963 fist delivery of Burroughs B5000
c 1963 introduction of CDC 6600 supercomputer
c 1963 introduction of Honeywell H-200 and of its Liberator program targeted against IBM 1401
g 1963 cession of SBC Service Business Company to Control Data, due to justice order
o 1963 acquisition of Friden Inc  by Singer 
pc 1963 invention of mouse pointer device by Douglas Englebart at Stanford University
s 1963 standardization of ASCII code by ASA X3 committee, with large participation of  Bob Bemer, then at IBM.
sa 1963 development of Sketchpad with lightpen at MIT Lincoln Lab by Ivan Sutherland
c 1964 introduction of IBM 360 mod 20 small business computer
c 1964 introduction of IBM 360/92 large scale scientific computer, developed as Project X and delivered as 360/91 and 360/95
c 1964 introduction of IBM S/360 line of computers, built in SLT technology
c 1964 introduction of Burroughs B5500
c 1964 introduction of CDC 6600 , designed by Seymour Cray and James E Thornton in Chippewa Falls MN
c 1964 introduction of NCR 315 business computer
c 1964 introduction of Sperry Rand Univac 1108
c 1964 General Electric buys the Olivetti computers forming GEISI.
cs 1964 introduction of DEC PDP-7 18-bits minicomputer
s 1964 first operation of BASIC at Dartmouth College  on GE-225 and DN-30
sa 1964 operation of IBM American Airlines SABRE reservation system using IBM 7090, project initiated in mid-1954
tc 1964 JOSS time-sharing system enters operation on Johnniac at Rand Corporation
tc 1964 Inauguration of Dartmouth Time-Sharing on GE-265, by John Kemeny and Tom Kurz, featuring first BASIC language processor
tc 1964 Paul Baran of RAND published the paper "On Distributed Communications Networks," about secure packet-switching networks
c 1965 first shipment of IBM 360 mod 65 to Lincoln Lab
c 1965 first shipment of IBM 360/30 from Endicott
c 1965 first shipment of IBM 360/50
c 1965 introduction of IBM 360 mod 65 and 75
cs 1965 introduction of Digital PDP-8 designed by Ed de Castro
s 1965 introduction of DOS on IBM 360
ss 1965 foundation of Keane, Inc project management software house at Hingham, MA, by John F. Keane
tc 1965 first soviet communications satellite Molniya 1
c 1966 first shipment of IBM 360 mod 20
c 1966 first shipment of IBM 360/67
c 1966 first shipment of IBM 360/75 to NASA
c 1966 B6500 will be only delivered in 1969
c 1966 Bell Labs announce magnetic bubble technology developed by A.H. Bobeck
c 1966 Introduction of Burroughs B2500 and B3500
cp 1966 Telex introduces an IBM compatible tape drive
cs 1966 introduction of HP 2115 by Hewlett-Packard
m 1966 foundation of Signetics corporation, semiconductors firm
c 1967 delivery of IBM 360/91 supercomputer
cp 1967 Resignation of the "dirty dozen" engineers from San Jose storage products group
cp 1967 foundation of ISS Information Storage Systems, manufacturing products integrated and sold by Telex
g 1967 publication of ArpaNet plans
m 1967 Charlie Spock (ex-Fairchild) is named CEO of National Semiconductors
m 1967 introduction of first MOS chip at Fairchild
s 1967 Donald Knuth mentions the need to separate data and programs in algorithms
s 1967 final version of ASCII-1967 encoding adopted internationally by ISO
g 1968 FCC authorizes non-Bell equipments connection  to telephone lines
m 1968 IBM Research (Dr Robert Dennard) gets a patent for DRAM
pc 1968 Douglas C. Engelbart, of the SRI, demonstrates his system of keyboard, keypad, mouse, and windows At SJCC  in San Francisco
s 1968 IBM introduces unbundling of software and services
s 1968 creation of Pascal by Nikolaus Wirth
c 1969 first shipment of IBM 360 mod 85
cs 1969 introduction of Data General Nova 1200, designed by Ron Gruner
g 1969 US DoJ (attorney general Ramsey Clark) charges IBM of monopolizing the computer industry
m 1969 resignation of Alan Shugart from IBM Alan Shugart joins Memorex
m 1969 creation of Flextronics by Joe McKenzie, as board equipping manufacturing company
m 1969 foundation of AMD Advanced Micro Devices by Jerry Sanders (ex-Fairchild)
m 1969 Intel introduces 512Kbit chip 1102 PMOS memory chip, designed by Joel Karper, working with William Regitz of Honeywell
o 1969 Singer Business Machines introduces MDTS point of salesterminal
s 1969 creation of UNIX operating system at Bell Labs
sa 1969 first flight to Moon of Apollo XI  with Raytheon Apollo Guidance Computer
ss 1969 Xerox buys SDS forming XDS Xerox Data Systems
tc 1969 AT&T accepts to sell its teletypewriter TWX exchange service to Western Union
tc 1969 beginning of operations of MCI Microwave Communications International
tc 1969 first ARPANet node at UCLA by BBN, Honeywell 516 IMP, UCLA, SRI, UCSB and Utah U hosts
c 1970 introduction of IBM S/370 155 (code-named Hawk) and 165 (Eagle), with MST technology, in S/360 architecture
c 1970 Acquisition of General Electric computer business by Honeywell
c 1970 Foundation of Amdahl corporation at Sunnyvale CA
cp 1970 cut in discs lease price to face plug-compatible manufacturers competition
cp 1970 IBM 3330 disc storage code-named Merlin storing 100<MB per spindle featuring voice-coil actuator and track-following servo
g 1970 FCC regulates cable-TV industry barring access of TV networks to CATV
m 1970 foundation of Western Digital as a specialized semiconductor manufacturer
o 1970 Foundation of Xerox Palo Alto research center (PARC)
o 1970 introduction of Friden System 10 small computer
s 1970 IBM unbundling becomes effective in the US
c 1971 decision of John Opel to start the Future Systems product line. Design was headed by George Radin from Research Division
c 1971 first shipment of IBM 370/155
c 1971 first shipment of IBM 370/165
c 1971 Thomas J Watson Jr. steps down letting . Vincent Learson as CEO and Frank T. Carry as President.
c 1971 CTC's Datapoint 2200 Computer
c 1971 RCA announces its abandon of computers industry
c 1971 The Kenbak-1 Computer
c 1971 Univac acquires the US assets of RCA
cp 1971 acquisition of ISS by Itel, a reseller of Telex subsystems. ISS was sold later to Univac and resold to Control Data in 1985
m 1971 introduction of Intel 1701 256-bits EPROM
m 1971 introduction of Intel 4004 single chip processor with 2300 transistors, designed by Ted Hoff and Frederico Faggin
m 1971 shipment of Intel 4004 chip to Busicom
m 1971 The first microprocessor: the 4004
s 1971 creation of PASCAL programming language by Niklaus Wirth
vg 1971 foundation of Atari by Nolan Bushnell
c 1972 foundation of Cray Research Inc by Seymour Cray (ex-Control Data)
c 1972 Fujitsu acquires shares of Amdahl and starts cooperation.
cp 1972 announcement of virtual storage on IBM S/370 systems, featuring VM/370, DOS/VS, OS/VS1 and OS/VS2 
cp 1972 Telex suit against anti-trust practices of IBM on discs.
cp 1972 Telex won in Sep 1973 but its award was limited in appeal, due to trade secrets violations
cs 1972 foundation of Prime Computer by Bill Poduska at Natick MA
m 1972 The 8008 microprocessor
o 1972 introduction of Wang 2200 minicomputers
s 1972 release of C programming language on UNIX by Dennis Ritchie
sa 1972 Alan Kay at Xerox PARC proposed  a DataBook
vg 1972 introduction of Atari Pong game by Alan Bushnell
vg 1972 Nolan Bushnell sold the company to Warner in 1976. It was acquired by Jack Tramiel in 1986
c 1973 first shipment of IBM 370/195
cp 1973 Alan Shugart leaves Memorex to found Shugart Associates
g 1973 Judge Larson establishes Eckert-Mauchly derived ENIAC from Atanasoff, denis Sperry claims against Honeywell and CDC
m 1973 Intel's watch venture in Microma, terminated in 1978
m 1973 introduction of 4K-bits DRAM by Texas Instruments
o 1973 invention of Ethernet by Bob Metclaff at Xerox PARC
pc 1973 The Micral microcomputer
pc 1973 The Scelbi-8H microcomputer
pc 1973 disclosure of Xerox Alto  workstation at PARC designed by  Butler W. Lampson, Robert W. Taylor, Charles P. Thacker
s 1973 creation of PL/M by Gary Kildall
s 1973 development of CP/M operating system by Gary Kildall
tc 1973 introduction by General Electric of Mark-III time-sharing system using Honeywell 6000 computers
tc 1973 Lawrence Roberts (ex-ARPA) becomes CEO of Telenet
tc 1973 Martin Cooper from Motorola files a patent for cellular radiotelephone
tc 1973 publication by Robert Kahn  and Vinson Cerf of specifications of TCP/IP
tc 1973 publication of specifications of FTP File Transfer Protocol (Arpanet RFC454) by Jon Postel and Abhay Bhushan
c 1974 Control Data terminates the production of 8600 and focus on Star
c 1974 creation of Tandem Computers by Jim Treybig, producing non-stop computers,
cs 1974 Introduction of Data General Eclipse S/100 
cs 1974 introduction of Hewlett-Packard HP-3000 minicomputer
m 1974 The 8080 microprocessor
m 1974 introduction of Intel 8080 2MHz microprocessor
m 1974 introduction of Motorola 6800 microprocessor, featuring 4000 transistors
m 1974 introduction of Texas Instruments TMS-1000 microcontroller
m 1974 The 6800 microprocessor
pc 1974 The Mark-8 microcomputer
s 1974 introduction of OS/MVS (as rel. 2 of OS/VS2)
s 1974 introduction of SNA Systems Networks Architecture
av 1975 presentation by Victor Company of Japan (JVC) of VHS video tape recorder
c 1975 formal termination of FS project
c 1975 introduction of IBM System 32, derivate from System 3
c 1975 introduction of Tandem-16 fault tolerant system
cs 1975 introduction of Honeywell Level 6 minicomputer
g 1975 settlement of suit between Xerox and FTC accusing Xerox of monopoly in copier
m 1975 The 6502 microprocessor
m 1975 The Altair 8800 microcomputer
m 1975 The KIM-1 microcomputer
m 1975 The Sphere 1 microcomputer
pc 1975 formation of Homebrew Computer Club in Menlo Park that will the cradle of personal computer
s 1975 Bill Gates and Paul Allen found Microsoft
s 1975 incorporation of Micro-Soft
s 1975 introduction of Unix V6 by Bell Labs of AT&T
s 1975 Paul Allen and Bill Gates license their BASIC interpreter to MITS for Altair microcomputer
av 1976 introduction of video recorder VHS Video Home System  by JVC 
c 1976 Honeywell buys Xerox Data Systems from Xerox
c 1976 ICL acquires Singer Business Machines
cs 1976 Data General starts FountainHead Project in Triangle Park NC to compete with DEC Vax. terminated in 1979 
m 1976 introduction of Zilog Z80, a 2.5 MHz microprocessor, designed by Frederico Faggin
o 1976 foundation of Caere, an OCR company, by Robert Noyce
o 1976 introduction of Wang WPS word-processor
pc 1976 Commodore International reincorporate in Bahamas and install its R&D in Costa Mesa CA
pc 1976 first micro-computer shop of Computerland at Hayward CA
pc 1976 foundation of Apple by Jobs and Wozniak with Mike Markula
pc 1976 introduction of 5 1/4 in diskette by Shugart Associates (initially for Wang )
pc 1976 introduction of Western Digital first floppy disk controller
pc 1976 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak finished Apple I microcomputer based on MOS 6502
s 1976 creation of Computer Associates by Charles B Wang, in New-York City introducing CA Sort
tc 1976 AT&T installs its first digital switch
e 1977 ITT's chairman Geneen steps down and is replaced by Lyman Hamilton
pc 1977 introduction of Apple II based on 6502, designed by Steve Wozniak
pc 1977 introduction of Commodore PET Personal Electronic Transactor 2001 microcomputer based on 6502
pc 1977 introduction of Tandy/Radio-Shack TRS-80 based on Z80
s 1977 foundation of Oracle Corp by Bob Miner and Larry Ellison under the name of Software Development Laboratories
sa 1977 SAP transforms its name in " Systeme, Anwendungen, Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung".and moves to Walldorf
c 1978 first shipment of IBM S/38
m 1978 Robert Kahn, head of DARPA, initiates the VLSI program 
o 1978 Exxon QYX Intelligent Typewriter Systems introduces an electronic typewriter
o 1978 introduction of Epson MX-80 dot matrix printer
s 1978 introduction of first BSD release of Unix by Bill Joy, at Berkeley
vg 1978 introduction of Atari game console VCS 2600
av 1979 introduction of Walkman mobile audio-playing cassette by Sony
cp 1979 IBM develops thin-film recording heads for magnetic discs
cp 1979 creation of EMC˛ by founded by Richard J. Egan (ex-Intel) and Roger Marino 
cp 1979 creation of Seagate Technology by Alan Shugart and Finis Conner (ex-IBMers)
i 1979 Hewlett-Packard introduces programmable hand-held calculator HP-41C
m 1979 Fairchild is acquired by Schlumberger, avoiding  a take-over by Fujitsu
m 1979 introduction of Intel 8088 at 4.77 MHz, it will be selected as the heart of IBM PC and of its clones
m 1979 introduction of Motorola MC68000microprocessor with 68000 transistors
o 1979 Xerox acquires Shugart Associates
pc 1979 introduction of Apple II Plus
s 1979 installation of Microsoft at Seattle from Albuquerque
sa 1979 release of Micropro Wordstar word processor written by Bob Barnaby on Z-80 processors
sa 1979 release of Visicalc on Apple II
vg 1979 release of Flight Simulator I on Apple II by Bruce Artwick
av 1980 introduction of compact disc by Sony and Philips
c 1980 first shipment of IBM System 38
c 1980 acquisition of SDC by Burroughs
pc 1980 deceiving introduction of Apple III based on 6502
pc 1980 introduction by Seagate of a 5 MB disk for microcomputers
pc 1980 IPO of Apple
pc 1980 Steve Balmer joins Microsoft
pc 1980 introduction of 3 1/2 in floppy disk by Sony.
s 1980 agreement between IBM and Microsoft about DOS on IBM PC
s 1980 visit of Jack Sams to Microsoft
sa 1980 creation of DBase II by Wayne Ratcliff
sa 1980 Software Plus will become soon Ashton-Tate 
vg 1980 foundation of Activision by Atari programmers
vg 1980 release of PacMan game by Namco, designed by Toru Iwantani and programmed by Hideyuki Mokajima
c 1981 acquisition of Memorex by Burroughs
e 1981 acquisition of GTE Sylvania TV business by Philips
e 1981 invention of scanning tunneling microscope at IBM Zurich laboratory by Gerd K. Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer,
m 1981 establishment by Flextronics of Singapore plant
o 1981 introduction of Xerox Star workstation designed at PARC
pc 1981 introduction of IBM 5150 Personal Computer, based on Intel 8088 and Microsoft PC-DOS operating system. 
pc 1981 operation of Microsoft DOS on IBM PC prototype
pc 1981 introduction of Osborne portable computer in a suitcase
pc 1981 release of dBase  by Ashton Tate
pc 1981 foundation of Softbank by Masayoshi Son in Tokyo
av 1982 introduction by Sony, Hitachi, JVC, Matsushita et Philips of a 8mm cassette format for video and data recording. 
cs 1982 incorporation of Sun Microsystems founded by Andy Bechtolsheim, Vinod Khosla, and Scott McNealy
cs 1982 introduction of DEC Rainbow personal computer delivered early 1983
cs 1982 Motorola acquires Four-Phase computers
g 1982 U.S. government drops 13 year anti-trust case against IBM
g 1982 AT&T and DOJ consent decree settling case by divesting AT&T of its local telephone companies.
m 1982 introduction of Intel 80286 at 6 MHz, with 134,000 transistors (1.5µm technology)
pc 1982  reverse engineering of BIOS authorized in IBM vs. Compaq
pc 1982 introduction of Compaq Portable PC with 8088
pc 1982 creation of Compaq by Rod Canyon
pc 1982 first IBM PC clone by Columbia Data Products
pc 1982 Personal Software, Visicalc's editor, is renamed Visicorp
s 1982 introduction of Microsoft MS-DOS v2.0
s 1982 University of Berkeley developed RISC-I processor under David Patterson
sa 1982 release of Microsoft Multiplan spreadsheet on 6502 microprocessor
sa 1982 release of Wordperfect on IBM PC
sa 1982 development of Postscript by John Warnock; foundation of Adobe by Warnock and Charles Geshke
sa 1982 introduction of AutoCAD by Autodesk
vg 1982 release of Flight Simulator 2 on IBM PC by Microsoft
vg 1982 foundation of Electronic Arts by Trip Hawkins (ex-Apple) for building games on Apple II and Commodore 64
vg 1982 foundation of Silicon Graphics (SGI) by Jim Clark, professor at Stanford University
c 1983 introduction of IBM System 36
cp 1983 introduction of CDROM jointly by Philips & Sony
e 1983 Raytheon introduces gallium-arsenide monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC)
g 1983 US Government launches Strategic Defense Inititiative (SDI)
m 1983 establishment of Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, for cooperative research
pc 1983 introduction of Apple Lisa
pc 1983 introduction of Commodore SX-64 portable color computer
pc 1983 introduction of spreadsheet program 1-2-3 by Lotus, developed by Mitch Kapor and Jonathan Sachs on IBM PC
pc 1983 John Sculley (ex-Pepsi-Cola) named CEO of Apple
s 1983 disclosure of IBM token-ring local area network
s 1983 creation of C++ programming language by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs
s 1983 departure of Paul Allen from Microsoft
s 1983 foundation of Novell by Raymond J Noorda at Provo UT, introducing Netware, an operating system for local area networks
s 1983 introduction of Microsoft Windows
sa 1983 creation of Borland International by Philippe Kahn, 
sa 1983 Mitch Kapor resigns from Lotus and is replaced by Jim Manzi
sa 1983 introduction of Philippe Kahn of Borland's TurboPascal, selling for $49
w 1983 Internet introduces DNS Domain Name System designed by Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris, and Craig Partridge
c 1984 IBM acquires Rolm Corporation.
c 1984 STC acquires 81.4% of ICL
g 1984 Divestiture of AT&T into long distance & development (futureLucent) and 7 regional RBOC regional Bell operating  "Baby Bells":
g 1984 end of Bell system divestiture process. Disappearance of Western Electric.
g 1984 foundation of Bellcore by the Baby Bells replacing Bell Labs for them
pc 1984 introduction of IBM PC/AT based on Intel 286, featuring VGA graphics
pc 1984 introduction of IBM PCJr with DOS 2.1
pc 1984 creation of Dell Computer Corporation by Michael Dell to assemble PC.
pc 1984 introduction of Apple MacIntosh, based on MC68000 8MHz introduction of Apple Lisa 2
pc 1984 Jack Tramiel is fired from Commodore and buys Atari from Warner
pc 1984 resignation of Jack Tramiel as Commodore CEO replaced by Irving Gould
s 1984 acquisition of EDS by General Motors for $2.5B, the merger with GM EDP activities occurred in October 1984
sa 1984 introduction of Borland's Sidekick a personal organizer program
sa 1984 release of Ashton-Tate dBase III
av 1985 Sony renounces to the Betamax VTR format
m 1985 introduction of Intel 386 (later qualified DX) processor with 275,000 transistors
o 1985 Hewlett-Packard introduces LaserJet printer
pc 1985 introduction of Amiga 1000, produced later by Commodore, based on MC68000
pc 1985 Microsoft introduces MSDOS 3.2 supporting 3"1/2 diskettes
pc 1985 Microsoft introduces QuickBasic for DOS3.2
pc 1985 Steve Jobs attempts a coup to remove Sculley that is denied by the board of Apple.
s 1985 release of Microsoft Windows 1.0.1
sa 1985 Lotus buys Personal Software and rights to Visicalc
tc 1985 Bernie Ebbers is named CEO of LDDS
vg 1985 release of Carmen San Diego, an educational game by Broderbund
c 1986 John Akers is promoted IBM's CEO
c 1986 Honeywell announces the divestiture of its computer division
c 1986 Merge of Burroughs Corporation and Sperry to form Unisys Corporation
m 1986 introduction of Motorola 68030 microprocessor
pc 1986 introduction of IBM PC/RT based on project 801 RISC processor
pc 1986 introduction of Apple MacPlus
pc 1986 IPO of Microsoft.
s 1986 release of Microsoft Word 3.0
tc 1986 first router introduced by Cisco
tc 1986 introduction of first Cisco routers
tv 1986 General Electric takes control of RCA
vg 1986 acquisition of Infocom by Activision
vg 1986 Steve Jobs buys Pixar, a movie company,  from George Lucas
av 1987 introduction of DAT digital audio tape format
c 1987 creation of Honeywell-Bull Inc where Honeywell share is reduced to 43%, Groupe Bull being 43% and the rest to NEC
c 1987 introduction of Unisys A Series
cp 1987 spin-off of Memorex from Unisys  Burroughs
cs 1987 introduction of Sun 4 computer based on SPARC architecture
cs 1987 introduction of Sun Microsystems UltraSparc II microprocessor
m 1987 creation of Sematech at Austin TX, subsidized by DARPA
m 1987 National Semiconductors acquires Fairchild Semiconductors
s 1987 introduction of IBM PS/2 a line of personal computers with MicroChannel Architecture bus Microsoft and IBM announce OS/2 multi-tasking operating system
s 1987 introduction of IBM PS/2 discarding ISA bus, being replaced by MCA, and featuring VGA video
s 1987 release of IBM-Microsoft first release of OS/2 with only a command line interface
s 1987 delivery of Microsoft OS/2 on IBM PC
sa 1987 agreement of Lotus with IBM for a 10-year software development delivery of Lotus 1-2-3 release 3.0
sa 1987 acquisition by Borland of Ansa, a company developing Paradox data base software
sa 1987 acquisition of Powerpoint editor, Forethought by Microsoft
sa 1987 introduction of Aldus PageMaker for Windows
sa 1987 introduction of Microsoft Excel for Windows 2.0
sa 1987 release of Borland Quattro spreadsheet program
c 1988 Convergent Technology is bought by Unisys
cp 1988 merge between Memorex and Telex forming Memorex Telex
cs 1988 introduction of IBM Application Systems AS/400 code named Silverlake
cs 1988 Introduction of first RISC computers by Hewlett-Packard (code-named Spectrum) architect Joel Birnbaum (ex-IBM)
m 1988 AMD acquires Gould Microdevices
m 1988 establishment of Sematech consortium headed by William Norris at Austin TX
m 1988 introduction of Intel 386SX microprocessor with 275,000 transistors
m 1988 introduction of Motorola 88000 RISC microprocessor
pc 1988 introduction of Steve Job's NeXt computer based on Motorola 68030
s 1988 Computer Associates acquires Applied Data Research from Ameritech
s 1988 creation of Open System Foundation by IBM, H-P, Bull and Digital against Sun & AT&T risks of monopoly on UNIX
sa 1988 introduction of OS/2 presentation manager by IBM & Microsoft
sa 1988 Microsoft acquires a Sybase license for SQL Server
tc 1988 first ISDN offering in United States
tc 1988 first transatlantic fiber optic cable
c 1989 foundation of Cray Computer Corporation by Seymour Cray
c 1989 Gene Amdahl quits Trilogy and Elxsi
cp 1989 Memorex-Telex acquires NAS (Hitachi main frames reseller)
cs 1989 Hewlett-Packard acquires Apollo Computers of Chelmsford MA
m 1989 introduction of Intel i486 with 1.2 million transistors, code named P4
sa 1989 introduction of Quattro-Pro spreadsheet software by Borland
tc 1989 British telecom acquires Tymnet from Mc Donnell Douglas
vg 1989 introduction of Nintendo GameBoy console
c 1990 Fujitsu buys 80% of ICL shares for $1.2B
c 1990 Siemens acquires Nixdorf and merges it with its Data Systems division into Siemens-NixdorfInformation Systems AG
cs 1990 introduction of IBM RS/6000 workstation based on superscalar Power1 multichip processor.
g 1990 NSFNET replaces Arpanet
m 1990 introduction of Intel 386SL low power dissipation microprocessor with 855,000 transistors
pc 1990 acquisition of Altos Computer Systems by Taiwanese Acer for $94M
sa 1990 introduction of Lotus Notes
tc 1990 Rolm is resold to Siemens Corporation
c 1991 acquisition of NCR by AT&T for $6.3B
c 1991 AT&T NCR acquires Teradata
cs 1991 introduction of IBM RS/6000 series 700
m 1991 introduction of Intel 486SX with 1,185,000 transistors code-named P4S
o 1991 investment of IBM into Wang
pc 1991 alliance between IBM, Apple and Motorola for the development of PowerPC
pc 1991 Apple, IBM and H-P create Taligent
s 1991 Design of Java language (initially named "Oak") by Patrick Naughton, Mike Sheridan, and James Gosling from Sun Microsystems
s 1991 introduction of Linux 0.02 by Linus Torwalds
sa 1991 Acquisition of Ashton-Tate by Borland International
tc 1991 Tim Berners-Lee at CERN, Geneva,  released World Wide Web.
cs 1992 termination of Prime computers division. The company takes the name of its Computervision division
pc 1992 introduction of IBM ThinkPad PC notebooks
pc 1992 introduction of PowerPC 601microprocessor by IBM and Motorola
s 1992 Introduction of Windows/NT by Microsoft
sa 1992 Hewlett-Packard acquires Ask software house
sa 1992 creation of Macromedia
sa 1992 introductions of Microsoft Access and Foxpro data base software products
c 1993 IBM Federal Systems Division is sold to Loral
c 1993 Lou Gerstner elected CEO of IBM, replacing John Akers who was demoted in January 1993
m 1993 introduction of Intel Pentium with 3,100,000 transistors, code named  P5
o 1993 IBM spins off its personal computer printer division into Lexmark 
pc 1993 John Sculley is demoted from Apple and replaced as CEO by Spindler
pc 1993 Zenith Data Systems (a Groupe Bull company) acquires 19.9% of Packard-Bell
s 1993 introduction of Microsoft Windows NT for Intel and MIPS architectures
sa 1993 introduction of Microsoft Encarta
sa 1993 Microsoft introduces Excel 5.0 for Windows with VBA macros
cp 1994 introduction of Iomega Zip with 100MB removable disc cartridge
m 1994 Intel introduces Pentium at 90/100 MHz code named P54C using .6µm BiCMOS process
m 1994 introduction of Intel 486SX2 with 1,185,000 transistors 
pc 1994 closure of Commodore international
s 1994 AT&T  sells UNIX to Novell and abandons the 3B servers line
s 1994 Digital sells rdb data base to Oracle
sa 1994 acquisition of Broderbund by Electronic Arts
sa 1994 merge between Aldus and Adobe
sa 1994 Novell acquires Wordperfect
sa 1994 release of Myst game by Cyan
vg 1994 Jim Clark resigns from Silicon Graphics looking to work on Interactive TV. 
vg 1994 introduction of Sony Playstation designed by Ken Kutaragi
w 1994 foundation of Netscape by Marc Andreesen and Jim Clark
w 1994 introduction of Netscape Navigator 1.0
c 1995 acquisition of Tandem by Compaq
cp 1995 Seagate acquires Conner Peripherals
cs 1995 introduction of AS/400 A 30 based on modified PowerPC, code named Muskie
m 1995 introduction of Intel Pentium Pro at 150 MHz code named P6
m 1995 Flextronics International is acquired by Singaporean interests
sa 1995 IBM acquires Lotus Development System 
ss 1995 EDS acquires A.T. Kearney, a well known consulting firm
tc 1995 announcement of AT&T restructuration in separate business
tc 1995 John Chambers named CEO of Cisco
w 1995 Bill Gates converts Microsoft to Internet
w 1995 Digital releases AltaVista Internet search engine
w 1995 incorporation of Yahoo!
cp 1996 acquisition of Cray Research by Silicon Graphics
i 1996 introduction of Palm Pilot PDA
m 1996 Intel announces Pentium at 200 MHz
m 1996 Intel introduces Pentium at .035µm at 66/150 MHz with 3.1 million transistors
pc 1996 signature of an agreement between Apple and IBM on CHRP platform based on PowerPC
pc 1996 acquisition of NeXt by Apple
pc 1996 Michael Spindler is replaced by Gilbert d'Amelio as Apple CEO
s 1996 introduction of Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0
ss 1996 creation of IBM Global Services
ss 1996 General Motors relinquishes its control of EDS
tc 1996 Break up of AT&T by the spin-off of Lucent Technologies(including the fledging Bell Labs) and NCR
tc 1996 Southwestern Bell announces merger plans with Pacific Telesis. 
tc 1996 Worldcom acquires MFS Communications Company, including Internet UUNET network and infrastructure of AOL and Compuserve
vg 1996 introduction of Nintendo 64 game console
c  1997 Amdahl Corp becomes completely owned by Fujitsu 
cp 1997 introduction of a new generation of IBM S/390 parallel servers G3 and G4 based on CMOS technology
cs 1997 Sun's new server family introduced. Includes the 64-processor Sun Enterprise 10000 server
i 1997 IBM introduces Workpad PDA under Palm license
m 1997 IBM announces usage of copper instead of aluminum in chips circuitry
m 1997 IBM is retreating from the DRAM market...
m 1997 introduction of Intel Pentium II (code named Klamath) with 7.5 million transistors
m 1997 National Semiconductors acquires Cyrix
pc 1997 Steve Jobs named Apple interim CEO 
pc 1997 acquisition of Digital Equipment by Compaq for $9.6B, dela confirmed in Jun 1998
pc 1997 Acquisition of Microcom by Compaq
tc 1997 acquisition by Bell Atlantic of Nynex
tc 1997 Worldcom takes over MCI, for $40B rebuffing British Telecom
w 1997 acquisition of Compuserve by AOL
g 1998 DoJ, following Netscape and Sun, sues Microsoft, on  bundling of Internet Explorer in Windows
i 1998 Handspring introduces its first PDA under PalmOS
m 1998 introduction by Intel of Pentium II Deschutes
m 1998 introduction of Intel Itanium, born Merced
pc 1998 introduction of Apple iMac
s 1998 introduction of Microsoft Windows 98
tc 1998 acquisition of Pacific Bell and of Nevada Bell by SBC
tc 1998 introduction of wireless BlueTooth standard by Intel, IBM, Nokia and Toshiba
w 1998 AOL acquires Netscape
c 1999 merge of Honeywell and Allied Texas
m 1999 introduction of AMD Athlon
s 1999 IBM offers Linux and Apache web server, and DB2 upon Linux on its systems.
s 1999 Computer Associates acquires Platinum Technology International 
tc 1999 SBC acquires Ameritech (itself a consolidation of Illinois Bell, Indiana Bell, Wisconsin Telephone, Michigan Bell, and Ohio Bell
tc 1999 Vodafone acquires AirTouch for $62B
tc 1999 Worldcom and Sprint announce their $129B merger
av 2000 Napster a pear-to-pear early company loses suit
s 2000 Computer Associates acquires Sterling Software
s 2000 Microsoft announces its new version of Windows NT as Windows 2000
ss 2000 Arthur Andersen is splitted into a an audit company that keeps the name Andersen and a service company renamed Accenture
ss 2000 Cap Gemini acquires Ernst & Young consulting services, and is renamed Cap Gemini  Ernst & Young
tc 2000 Bell Atlantic and GTE merge into Verizon
tc 2000 merge of QWest and US West (itself a consolidation of Pacific Northwest Bell, Mountain Bell, and Northwestern Bell
tc 2000 termination of merger discussions between Sprint and MCI
w 2000 merge of AOL and Time-Warner
av 2001 introduction of Apple iPod MP3 portable player
cs 2001 announcement of intended merger between H-P and Compaq
s 2001 introduction of Windows XP by Microsoft unifying its lines of operating system
ss 2001 EDS acquire SABRE infrastructure assets
vg 2001 introduction of Microsoft X-Box game console
av 2002 Napster, producing peer to peer software, was planning to be acquired by Bertelsman. Court bar lead Napster to bankruptcy
c 2002 IBM announces the closure of its Hungarian plant for manuacturing disks at Székesfehérvár, due to quality problems
cp 2002 IBM transfers its storage business in a joint-venture owned 70% by Hitachi and named Hitachi Global Storage technologies, in San Jose CA
cs 2002 Conclusion of the merge between Hewlett-Packard and Compaq
g 2002 acquisition of TRW by Northrop Grumann for $7.8B
g 2002 Microsoft gets confirmation on the consent decree settling the DoJ and states suit
m 2002 introduction of AMD Athlon XP  2500+ based on Thoroughbred 0.13µ 2 GHz
s 2002 IBM acquires Rational Software
s 2002 Charles Wang CEO and founder in 1976 of Computer Associates replaced by Sanjay Kumar. CA accused  SEC accounting malpractice.
s 2002 Microsoft and Sun Microsystems settle their dispute over Java. Microsoft obtains a Java license on Sun conditions for compatibility
ss 2002 IBM acquires PriceWaterhouse Coopers consulting division for $3.5B
tc 2002 resignation from H-P of Michael Capellas ex-pdt of Compaq before the merger, to become CEO of Worldcom.
tc 2002 Worldcom files bankruptcy (chapter 11)
w 2003 Steve Case chairman & CEO of AOL Time Warner announces his resignation effective May 2003
av Audio visual
c Computer through mainframe
cp Peripherals
cs Minicomputers and Servers
e Electrical
g Government regulation
i Instrument
m Microchips and processors
ma Mathematics
o Office automation
pc Personal computers
r Radio
s Software applications
sa Software applications
ss Systems services
t Telephone
tc Telecommunications data high speed
tv Television
vg Video Games
w Internet world Wide Web