1856 1 Edward Goodrich Acheson  Born Mar 9 1856 - Died Jul 6 1931  Production of Artificial Crystalline Carbonaceous Materials and Carborundum Chem Carborundum
1895 11 Edward Acheson's discovery of carborundum, a highly effective abrasive used in manufacturing, was an important influence in advancing the industrial era. In the mid 1890s, Acheson discovered that overheating carborundum produced almost pure graphite. This graphite was another major discovery for him, and it became extremely valuable and helpful as a lubricant. 
15 In 1926, the U.S. Patent Office named carborundum as one of the 22 patents most responsible for the industrial age. Not long after that, it was noted that without carborundum, the mass production manufacturing of precision-ground, interchangeable metal parts would be practically impossible. 
19 Born in Washington, Pennsylvania, Acheson worked with Thomas Edison before establishing his own lab. There, he began experimenting in search of a good industrial abrasive. When he tried intensively heating a mixture of carbon and clay, he found that the mixture yielded silicon carbide, or carborundum. Acheson was key in successfully establishing at least five industrial corporations dependent on electrothermal processes. He received a total of 70 patents relating to abrasives, graphite products, reduction of oxides, and refractories. 
1878 21 Ernst F. W. Alexanderson  Born Jan 25 1878 - Died May 14 1975  High-Frequency Alternator Telcom Radio
1906 31 Inventor Ernst Alexanderson was the General Electric Company engineer whose high-frequency alternator gave America its start in the field of radio communication. In 1904, Alexanderson was assigned to build a high-frequency machine that would operate at high speeds and produce a continuous-wave commission. 
35 Beforethe invention of his alternator, radio was an affair only of dots and dashes transmitted by inefficient crashing spark machines. After two years of experimentation, Alexanderson finally constructed a two-kilowatt, 100,000-cycle machine. It was installed in the Fessenden station at Brant Rock, Massachusetts, on Christmas Eve, 1906. It enabled that station to transmit a radio broadcast which included a voice and a violin solo. 
39 During his 46-year career with G.E., Swedish-born Alexanderson became the company's most prolific inventor, receiving a total of 322 patents. He produced inventions in such fields as railway electrification, motors and power transmissions, telephone relays, and electric ship propulsion, in addition to his pioneer work in radio and television. Alexanderson's name also will be recorded in history for his pioneer efforts in television and the transmission of pictures. On June 5, 1924, he transmitted the first facsimile message across the Atlantic. In 1927 he staged the first home reception of television at his own home in Schenectady, New York, using high-frequency neon lamps and a perforated scanning disc. He gave the first public demonstration of television on January 13, 1928.
1904 41 Andrew Alford  Born Aug 5 1904 - Died Jan 25 1992  Localizer Antenna System Telcom Localizer Antenna System
1945 51 Andrew Alford invented and developed antennas for radio navigation systems, including VOR and instrument landing systems featuring the 'Alford Loop.' 
59 Born in Samara, Russia, Alford graduated from the University of California in 1924 with an A.B. and received the honorary title of D.S. from Ohio University in 1975. He was employed with the Harvard University Radio Research Lab from 1943 to 1945; was division head,Direction Finder and Antenna Division, ITT, from 1943 to 1945; was head, Air Navigation Lab, International Telegraph Development Corporation, 1938-41; was with Mackay Radio and Telegraph Company, 1934-41; did engineering work for Fox Film Corporation, 1929-31; and was on the sound lab staff at California Institute of Technology, 1927-28. He later founded the Alford Manufacturing Company. 
1911 61 Luis Walter Alvarez  Born Jun 13 1911 - Died Sep 1 1988  Radio Distance and Direction Indicator Telcom Radio Distance and Direction Indicator
1943 71 Luis Walter Alvarez invented a radio distance and direction indicator. During World War II, he designed a landing system for aircrafts and a radar system for locating planes. Later, he helped develop the hydrogen bubble chamber, used to detect subatomic particles. 
75 This research led to the discovery of over 70 elementary particles and resulted in a major revision of nuclear theories. 
79 Born in San Francisco, Alvarez graduated from the University of Chicago with a B.S. in 1932 and a Ph.D. (physics) in 1936. He was an assistant physics instructor from 1936 to 1938; an associate professor from 1938 to 1945; associate director of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1954 to 1959; and a professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1945. He was a staff member, in the radiation laboratory, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1940 to 1943; at the metal laboratory at the University of Chicago from 1943 to 1944, and at the Los Alamos Laboratory in New Mexico from 1944 to 1945, at which time he received the patent for the radio distance and direction indicator. Alvarez was a member of the President's Science Advisory Committee from 1971 to 1972. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1968.
1890 81 Edwin Howard Armstrong  Born Dec 18 1890 - Died Feb 1 1954  Method of Receiving High-Frequency Oscillations Telcom Radio
1933 91 His crowning achievement (1933) was the invention of wide-band frequency modulation, now known as FM radio. 
95 The inventions of engineer Edwin Howard Armstrong were so important that to this day every radio or television set makes use of one or more of his developments. 
99 Born in New York City, Armstrong earned a degree in electrical engineering from Columbia University in 1913. While in college, he invented the regenerative circuit, which was the first amplifying receiver and the first reliable continuous-wave transmitter. In 1918, he invented the superheterodyne circuit, a highly selective means of receiving, converting, and greatly amplifying very weak, high-frequency electromagnetic waves. Independently wealthy on royalties from his inventions, he neither drew a salary nor taught many classes as professor of electrical engineering of Columbia University.
1832 101 George Babcock  Born Jun 17 1832 - Died Dec 16 1893  Improvement in Steam Generators Energy Steam Generator
1867 115 George H. Babcock and Stephen Wilcox invented an improved water tube steamboiler, which provided a safer and more efficient production of steam. 
119 Born in Unadilla Forks, New York, Babcock was part of a family of inventors and mechanics. In 1860, after moving to Brooklyn, he attended evening classes at Cooper Institute. During the American Civil War, he worked for the Mystic (Connecticut) Iron Works building ships for the U.S. government. He became the chief draftsman at the Hope Iron Works in Providence, R.I., where he joined Stephen Wilcox in improving boiler designs. The two men received their patent in 1867 and formed a partnership that same year. In 1881, the company was incorporated with Babcock as president and Wilcox as vice president. Since then, Babcock & Wilcox has become a world leader in the power generation industry and is a major operating unit of McDermott International, a worldwide energy services company.
1863 121 Leo Hendrik Baekeland  Born Nov 14 1863 - Died Feb 23 1944  Method of Making Insoluble Products of Phenol and Formaldehyde Chem Bakelite
1907 131 Leo Hendrik Baekeland is cited for his research in electric insulation, synthetic resins, and plastics. Using money from his first invention, Velox photographic paper, he established a laboratory, where he synthesized 'Bakelite,' a nonflammable material that was cheaper and more versatile than other known plastics. 
135 Bakelite has since been used in everything from engine parts to jewelry to electronics. 
139 Born in Ghent, Belgium, Baekeland graduated with a B.S. in chemistry from the University of Ghent in 1882 and a doctoral degree in 1884. He was awarded honorary degrees from theUniversity of Pittsburgh and the University of Edinburgh. Baekeland was a professor of chemistry at the University of Ghent from 1882 to 1889 and was a professor of chemistry and physics at the Government Higher Normal School of Science, Bruges, Belgium, from 1885 to 1887. In 1893 he founded Nepera Chemical Company, which he operated until 1899. He was president of the Bakelite Corp. from 1910 to 1939. Baekeland was a member of the U.S. Naval Consulting Board and the U.S. Nitrate Supply Commission, chairman of the committee on patents of the National Research Council, trustee of the Institute of International Education, and a member of the advisory board of the Chemical Division of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
1921 142 Robert Banks  Born Nov 24 1921 - Died Jan 3 1989  Polymers and Production Thereof Chem HDPE and Polypropylene Plastics
1951 152 Robert Banks and fellow research chemist Paul Hogan were working for Phillips Petroleum in 1951 when they invented crystalline polypropylene and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Together, the plastics were marketed under the brand name Marlex®, which has since made its way into every corner of American life. Banks and Hogan began working together in 1946. Low-density polyethylene already existed, but manufacturing it required extremely high pressures. While working on another project to improve yields of high-octane gasoline--the two chemists discovered crystalline polypropylene. They experimented further and found they were able to produce HDPE in a low pressure situation. Their discoveries launched a multi-billion dollar industry. 
156 Today, over 55 billion pounds of HDPE are manufactured each year. Plastic products include gallon milk jugs, laundry baskets, indoor-outdoor carpeting, and artificial turf. 
160 Banks was born and raised in Piedmont, Missouri. He received his B.S. from the University of Missouri at Rolla and his M.S. from Oklahoma State University. During World War II, he was a process engineer at an aviation gasoline plant. In 1946 Banks joined Phillips, spending his career there until his 1985 retirement. In 1987, Banks received an honorary doctorate from the University of Missouri at Rolla. 
1908 163 John Bardeen  Born May 23 1908 - Died Jan 30 1991  Semiconductor Amplifier; Three-Electrode Circuit Element Utilizing Semiconductive Materials Chem Transistor
1910 164 William B. Shockley Born Feb 13 1910 - Died Aug 12 1989  Semiconductor Amplifier; Three-Electrode Circuit Element Utilizing Semiconductive Materials Chem Transistor
1902 165 Walter Brattain Born Feb 10 1902 - Died Oct 13 1987  Semiconductor Amplifier; Three-Electrode Circuit Element Utilizing Semiconductive Materials Chem Transistor
1947 173 Physicists John Bardeen, William B. Shockley, and Walter Brattain shared the 1956 Nobel Prize for jointly inventing the transistor, a solid-state device that could amplify electrical current. 
177 The transistor performed electronic functions similar to the vacuum tube in radio and television, but was far smaller and used much less energy. The transistor became the building block for all modern electronics and the foundation for microchip and computer technology. 
181 Born in Madison, Wisconsin, Bardeen obtained his Ph.D. in 1936 in mathematics and physics from Princeton University. A staff member of the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, from 1938 to 1941, he served as principal physicist at the U.S. Naval Ordinance Laboratory in Washington, D.C., during World War II, after which he joined Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. There he conducted research on the electron-conducting properties of semiconductors. This work led to the invention of the transistor. Bardeen is also responsible for a theory of superconductivity, the property of some metals to lose all electrical resistance at very low temperatures, and for a theory explaining certain properties of semiconductors. In 1977, Bardeen received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest honor awarded to a civilian.
183 Shockley was born in London. He joined the technical staff of the Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1936 and there began experiments that led to the invention and development of the junction transistor. During World War II, he served as director of research for the Antisubmarine Warfare Operations Research Group of the U.S. Navy. After the war, he returned to Bell Telephone as director of transistor physics research. He was visiting professor of physics at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, in 1954, and deputy director of the Weapons Systems Evaluation Group of the Department of Defense in 1954-55. He joined Beckman Instruments Inc., to establish the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in 1955. In 1958 he became lecturer at Stanford University, California, and in 1963 became the first Poniatoff professor of engineering science at Stanford University.
185 Brattain was born in Amoy, China. Upon receiving his doctorate in 1929, he became a research physicist for Bell Telephone Laboratories. His chief field of research involved investigations into the surface properties of solids, particularly the atomic structure of a material at the surface, which usually differs from its atomic structure in the interior. He became adjunct professor at Whitman College, Walla Walla, Washington, in 1967. He was granted a number of patents and wrote extensively on solid state physics. 
1900 187 Arnold O. Beckman  Born Apr 10 1900  Apparatus for Testing Acidity Elec pH Meter
1935 197 Arnold O. Beckman invented a pH meter for measuring acidity and alkalinity and the quartz spectrophotometer, an instrument which pioneered automatic chemical analysis. 
205 Born in Cullom, Illinois, Beckman received his B.S. in 1922 and M.S. in 1923 from the University of Illinois. After serving as Research Engineer for the Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York for two years, he pursued further graduate studies at the California Institute of Technology and received his Ph.D. in 1928. He became an assistant professor there in 1929, resigning in 1940 to devote all of his time to the development and manufacture of scientific instruments for use in chemical laboratories and in chemical process control. He founded Beckman Instruments Inc. in 1935 with the development of the first Beckman instrument, the pH meter. In 1940 he developed the helical potentiometer, another precision electronic component, and the quartz spectrophotometer. Today the Beckman Instrument Company is a leading manufacturer of instrumentation and related scientific products used widely in medicine, science, industry, environmental pollution control, education, space exploration, and many other fields. Beckman has received numerous honorary degrees and awards. He founded the Instrument Society of America. The Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation has contributed substantially to the advancement of education and research. The foundation's philanthropy is reflected in the many medical and scientific institutions that bear the Beckman name. 
1905 207 S. Joseph Begun  Born Dec 2 1905 - Died Jan 5 1995  Electromagnetic Talking Device; Electromagnetic Talking Machine Elec Magnetic Recording
1934 217 Semi Joseph Begun was a pioneer of magnetic recording. He developed the Sound Mirror, the first consumer tape recorder, the Mail-A-Voice, which magnetically recorded on one side of a paper disk for letter correspondence, and a sourcing agreement for magnetic tape with 3M that turned into a billion dollar product line. 
221 One application was the Black Box aircraft recorder used to investigate aircraft accidents. 
225 Begun was born in Danzig, Germany. He graduated in 1929 from the Institute of Technology in Berlin. There, he became interested in magnetic recording. His doctoral thesis and his book were firsts in this field, both entitled Magnetic Recording. In 1934, he built the first tape recorder for broadcasting.
227 Begun immigrated to the U.S. in 1935. He joined the Brush Development Co. of Cleveland in 1938. During World War II, as a member of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), he promoted the development of magnetic recording. After the war, Begun continued developing recording media, coating paper and plastic tape with ferromagnetic powders. In 1971, Begun founded Auctor Associates, a technology-oriented consulting firm. His many honors include the Presidential Certificate of Merit from President Truman for his work in NDRC.
1847 229 Alexander Graham Bell  Born Mar 3 1847 - Died Aug 2 1922  Telephone / Telegraphy Telcom Telephone / Telegraphy
1876 239 Alexander Graham Bell's invention of the telephone grew out of his research into ways to improve the telegraph. On April 6, 1875, Bell was granted the patent for the multiple telegraph, which sent two signals at the same time. In September 1875 he began to write the specifications for the telephone. On March 7, 1876, the U.S. Patent Office granted him Patent Number 174,465 covering, the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically by causing electrical undulations, similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompanying the said vocal or other sounds. 
243 The range of Bell's inventive genius is represented only in part by the 18 patents granted in his name alone and the 12 he shared with his collaborators. These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone, one for the phonograph, five for aerial vehicles, four for hydroairplanes, and two for a selenium cell. 
247 Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, the inventor spent one year at a private school, two years at Edinburgh's Royal High School (from which he graduated at 14), and attended a few lectures at Edinburgh University and at University College in London, but he was largely family-trained and self-taught. Never adept with his hands, Bell had the good fortune to discover and inspire Thomas Watson, a young repair mechanic and model maker, who assisted him enthusiastically in devising an apparatus for transmitting sound by electricity. After inventing the telephone, Bell continued his experiments in communication, which culminated in the invention of the photophone-transmission of sound on a beam of light- a precursor of today's optical fiber systems. He also worked in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf. In 1888 he founded the National Geographic Society.
1903 249 Willard H. Bennett  Born Jun 13 1903 - Died Sep 28 1987  Radio Frequency Mass Spectrometer Telcom Radio Frequency Mass Spectrometer
1950 259 Willard Harrison Bennett pioneered the field of plasma physics and invented the radio frequency mass spectrometer. Bennett made scientific history in the 1930s pioneering studies in plasma physics - the study of gases ionized by high-voltage electricity. The radio frequency mass spectrometer was developed in 1950. Since it required no heavy magnet, it was the first launched into space to measure the masses of atoms. 
263 These studies and later research have been used throughout the world in controlled thermonuclear fusion research. In the 1950s, Bennett's experimental tube called the Stormertron predicted and modeled the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding the earth six years before they were discovered by satellite. It also reproduced intricate impact patterns found on the earth's surface which explained many features of the polar aurora. Sputnik III carried the first R-F mass spectrometer into space. It was the only space instrument used by the Russians and credited to an American inventor in their own Russian-language publications. 
267 Born in Findlay, Ohio, Bennett attended Carnegie Institute of Technology from 1920-22 and Ohio State University; the University of Wisconsin, Sc.M. in physical chemistry, 1926; and the University of Michigan, Ph.D. in physics, 1928. Bennett was elected to a National Research Fellowship in Physics and in 1928 and 1929 studied at the California Institute of Technology. In 1930 he joined the Physics faculty at Ohio State. Following service in World War II, Bennett worked at the National Bureau of Standards, the University of Arkansas, and the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. In 1961, he was appointed Burlington Professor of Physics at North Carolina State University (emeritus in 1976). Bennett held 67 patents. 
1851 269 Emile Berliner  Born May 20 1851 - Died Aug 3 1929  Gramophone; Combined Telegraph and Telephone Elec Gramophone / Microphone
1876 279 Emile Berliner invented the microphone that became part of the first Bell telephones, and his gramophone was the first record player to use disks. The carbon microphone transmitter he developed varied the contact pressure between two terminals as a voice acted against it. 
283 The 25 year-old Berliner sold his microphone patent for $50,000 to the fledgling Bell Telephone Company paving the way for it to become one of the world's largest corporations. Berliner's gramophone differed from its contemporaries in that it used a flat disk to record sound rather than the cylinder proposed by Edison. The disk permitted inexpensive, mass duplication. 
287 Born in Hanover, Germany, Berliner came to Washington in 1870 at age 19. He studied physics part time at the Cooper Institute (now Cooper Union) while assisting in a chemical laboratory. Most of the time he functioned as a seller of consumer dry goods. When Bell demonstrated his telephone at the U.S. Centennial Exposition, many inventors began exploring ways to improve it. Berliner's inspiration came when a telegraph operator told him that more current passed as one pressed harder on the key. Berliner's gramophone and method for duplicating records were eventually acquired by the Victor Talking Machine Company (eventually RCA). Berliner founded Deutsche Grammophon and Britain's Gramophone Co., Ltd. to market his device in Europe. His trademark, later adopted by RCA, was taken from an amusing painting from the turn of the century. The painting showed a dog, Nipper, listening to "his master's voice" on an old phonograph. Other Berliner inventions include a helicopter which flew in 1919. In 1908 he commissioned what was likely the first radial aircraft engine. He formed a public health organization that helped safeguard the U.S. milk supply. In 1911 he established the Esther Berliner (his mother) fellowship to give qualified women the opportunity to continue scientific research.
1947 289 Gerd Karl Binnig  Born Jul 20 1947  Scanning Tunneling Microscope Tool Scanning Tunneling Microscope
1981 299 Since the invention of the first microscope, scientists have searched for improved ways to explore the microscopic world. Optical systems were limited by the wavelength of light (roughly 2,000 times the diameter of an atom). Later, electron microscopes achieved much higher resolution by taking advantage of the much shorter wavelength of electrons in forming images. The most recent revolution came with Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Karl Binnig's scanning tunneling microscope (STM), invented in 1981, which provided the first images of individual atoms on the surfaces of materials. 
303 The STM can image atomic details as tiny as 1/25th the diameter of a typical atom, which corresponds to a resolution several orders of magnitude better than the best electron microscope. The STM's significance was quickly recognized throughout the world, and it has been used in fields as diverse as semiconductor science, metallurgy, electrochemistry, and molecular biology. Only five years after Binnig and Rohrer built the first STM, they were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics. The Nobel committee said the invention opened up 'entirely new fields...for the study of the structure of matter.' 
307 Binnig and Rohrer began their STM work at the IBM Zurich Division's Research Laboratory in 1978. Binnig, born in Frankfurt, West Germany, had just completed his Ph.D. at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt, where he studied superconductivity. Rohrer, born in Buchs, Switzerland, received his degree at the Eidenossiche Technische Hockschule in 1960 and had been with IBM since 1963.
1921 309 Forrest M. Bird  Born Jun 9 1921  Fluid Control Device; Respirator; Pediatric Ventilator Med Respirator / Ventilator
319 On television every week in the 1960s, Dr. Kildare committed himself to making his patients better. But try as he might, some would still not respond to his treatment. At those times his hospital's slogan was, when all else fails, 'get the Bird.' 'The Bird' was a little green box which became familiar to hospital patients throughout the world after it was introduced in 1958. 
1970 323 It was the first highly reliable, low-cost, mass-produced medical respirator in the world, and it was invented by Forrest Bird. The 'Babybird' respirator, introduced in 1970, quickly reduced infant mortality for those with respiratory problems from 70 percent to less than 10 percent worldwide. 
327 Bird was born in Stoughton, Massachusetts. His father, a World War I pilot, encouraged him to solo in an airplane by age 14, and by 16 Forrest had been tutored toward earning major flight authorizations.
329 During World War II, as an officer with the Army Air Corps, Bird became a technical air training officer, which allowed him to learn to fly almost every airplane then available. At that time supercharged airplanes were beginning to exceed the altitudes at which pilots could breath unaided. This provided Bird his first chance at developing technology for aiding breathing. After an Air Corps physician presented him textbooks on mammalian pathophysiology he became a lifelong student of the subject. By 1955, after having attended numerous medical schools and completed diverse residencies, Bird developed the prototype Bird Universal Medical Respirator for acute or chronic cardiopulmonary care. He tested the device by traveling in his own airplanes to medical schools and asking doctors for their most ill patients. In each case, known therapies had failed and the patient was expected to die of cardiopulmonary failure. Although many times the Bird succeeded, some patients died. These cases only pointed the way for further improvements in the device.
1898 331 Harold Stephen Black  Born Apr 14 1898 - Died Dec 11 1983  Wave Translation System Telcom Negative Feedback Amplifier
1927 341 Research engineer Harold S. Black revolutionized telecommunications by inventing systems that eliminated feedback distortion in telephone calls. The major task confronting the lab at that time was elimination of distortion. After six years of persistence, Black conceived the principles and equations for his negative feedback amplifier in a flash commuting to work aboard the ferry. Basically, the concept involved feeding systems output back to the input as a method of system control. 
345 Negative feedback had wider applications than transcontinental and transAtlantic telecommunications, including industrial, military, and consumer electronics, weaponry, analog computers, and such biomechanical devices as pacemakers. 
349 Born in Leominster, Massachusetts, Black graduated from Worcester Polytechnic Institute in 1921; years later he received an honorary doctorate in engineering from Worcester Tech. Following graduation Black joined Western Electric's West Street Labs, the forerunner of Bell Telephone Laboratories, in New York City. Black worked on a negative feedback system to aid the blind and deaf from 1966 until his death. 
1925 351 Baruch S. Blumberg  Born Jul 28 1925  Vaccine Against Viral Hepatitis and Process; Process of Viral Diagnosis and Reagent Med Vaccine for Hepatitis B
1963 361 Baruch Blumberg discovered an antigen in 1963 that detected the presence of hepatitis B in blood samples. Hepatitis B is a potentially fatal disease often transmitted through blood transfusions. This hepatitis antigen, 'the Australia Antigen,' was found frequently in the blood serum of viral hepatitis sufferers. The antigen was named for an aborigine blood sample that reacted with an antibody in the serum of an American hemophilia patient. Working with Blumberg, microbiologist Irving Millman developed a test that identified hepatitis B in blood samples. The blood test screened out carriers of this infectious disease, and after blood banks began using the test in 1971, hepatitis B after blood transfusions decreased by 25 percent. 
365 The test also became the first method for screening blood donations for the hepatitis B virus. Together, Blumberg and Millman developed a vaccine against the virus. This vaccine protects people exposed to hepatitis B from infection and has been administered to millions, particularly in Asia and Africa. Since hepatitis B is an unknown factor associated with the development of liver cancer, the vaccine was the first against a major form of cancer. 
369 Born in New York City, Baruch Blumberg graduated from Far Rockaway High School then joined the Navy, which assigned him to study physics at Union College in Schenectady, New York (B.S. 1946). He has an M.D., 1951, from Columbia University, and a Ph.D. in biochemistry, 1957, from Balliol College at Oxford University. He worked at the National Institutes of Health from 1957 to 1964 then joined Fox Chase Cancer Center and was also appointed professor of medicine and anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania. Blumberg shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology in 1976. In 1989, he became Master of Balliol College at Oxford while maintaining a position at Fox Chase Cancer Center. Irving Millman was born in New York City. He received a B.S. in 1948 from City College in New York, an M.S. in 1951 from the University of Kentucky, and a Ph.D. in 1954 from the Northwestern University Medical School, where he was appointed assistant professor. He joined Fox in 1967 after having previously held positions with Armour & Company, the Public Health Research Institute of the City of New York Inc., and the Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research. He is an adjunct professor of biology at Hahnemann University in Philadelphia. He has been a member of the New York Academy of Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Society of Microbiology and is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology.
1936 372 Robert Bower  Born Jun 12 1936  Field-Effect Device with Insulated Gate; Self Aligned Gate MOSFET Elec Field-Effect Device with Insulated Gate; Self Aligned Gate MOSFET
1969 382 Robert Bower invented the Field-effect Device with Insulated Gate known as the Self-Aligned Gate MOSFET, which has created the fast, design-stable device that is the foundation of all modern integrated circuits. 
390 Born in Santa Monica, California, Bower joined the Air Force in 1954. He attended UC Berkeley after his service, and in 1962 earned an A.B. in Physics while working at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory.
392 His work led to a Hughes Fellowship and entry to the California Institute of Technology, where in 1963 he earned an M.S. in Electrical Engineering. In 1965 he joined Hughes Research, where he conceived ways of using ion engine technology in the semiconductor field. While at Hughes, he developed the concept of the Self-Aligned Gate Transistor using ion implantation to form the Source and Drain with the gate element as the self-aligned mask.
394 He returned to Cal Tech to work on his Ph.D. in Applied Physics in 1973. He was a founder of Mnemonics, a company developing his invention of high density CCDs (Charge Coupled Devices) for memory applications in 1975. In 1979 he joined Advanced Micro Devices as a senior scientist and in 1986, he became an IEEE Fellow. Recently, he has pioneered work on three-dimensional microelectronics. 
1936 395 Herb Boyer   Born Jul 10 1936  Process for Producing Biologically Functional Molecular Chimeras Med Genetic Engineering
1973 396 Herb Boyer was with the University of California, San Francisco when he began investigating DNA with Stan Cohen. Their experiments marked the beginning of genetic engineering and launched the multi-billion dollar biotechnology industry. By early 1973, Boyer and Cohen determined that they were able to add genes from an organism to a simple cell; the genes would then replicate in the cell. Their recombinant DNA patents generated over $250 million in royalties before expiring. Recombinant DNA technology is considered the most significant achievement in molecular biology since Watson & Crick's work in 1953. After working with Cohen, Boyer joined forces with venture capitalist Robert Swanson to create the biotechnology firm Genentech, Inc. Since its founding in 1976, Genentech has produced a number of firsts such as genetically engineered human insulin. Genetically altered crops are also being researched to deal with global food supply issues. 
404 Boyer was born in Pittsburgh, grew up in western Pennsylvania, and attended St. Vincent College in Latrobe. He completed graduate work at the University of Pittsburgh and post-graduate work at Yale. In 1966, he joined the University of California, San Francisco, staying until 1991. Boyer has been honored with many awards, including the National Medal of Science and the National Medal of Technology.
1898 406 Rachel Fuller Brown  Born Nov 23 1898 - Died Jan 14 1980  Nystatin and Method of Producing It Med Nystatin (Antifungal / Antibiotic)
1954 416 Rachel Fuller Brown developed the world's first useful antifungal antibiotic, nystatin, through a long-distance scientific collaboration.
418 Working as researchers for the New York State Department of Health, Elizabeth Lee Hazen in New York City and Rachel Fuller Brown in Albany shared tests and samples through the U.S. mail. To Hazen's single-minded pursuit of an antifungal antibiotic, Brown added the skills needed to identify, characterize, and purify the various substances produced by culturing bacteria found in hundreds of soil samples.
420 The antibiotic they developed, named 'nystatin' for the New York State Department of Health, was first introduced in practical form in 1954 following Food and Drug Administration approval. 
424 Not only did it cure many disfiguring and disabling fungal infections of the skin, mouth, throat, and intestinal tract, but it could be combined with antibacterial drugs to balance their effects.
426 Uses for nystatin have been as varied as treating Dutch elm disease to rescuing water-damaged works of art from molds. 
430 Brown and Hazen donated all nystatin royalties-more than $13 million by the time the patent expired-to academic science through the nonprofit Research Corporation.
432 Born in rural Mississippi, Hazen was orphaned at the age of three and raised by relatives. She earned a B.S. at the Mississippi State College for Women then taught school and served as an Army diagnostic laboratory technician during World War I. After the war she won an advanced degree in bacteriology from Columbia University, becoming one of its first women doctoral candidates.
434 Brown was born in Springfield, Massachusetts. She received her undergraduate education at Mount Holyoke College and later earned M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in chemistry from the University of Chicago. She became a pioneer in encouraging women to study science.
1849 436 Luther Burbank  Born Mar 7 1849 - Died Apr 11 1926  Peach and Fruit Ag Peach and Fruit
1871 446 During a lifetime devoted to plant breeding, Luther Burbank developed more than 800 strains and varieties of plants, including 113 varieties of plums and prunes, 10 varieties of berries, 50 varieties of lilies and the Freestone peach. 
454 Born in Lancaster, Massachusetts, Burbank was brought up on a farm and received only an elementary education. At age 21 he purchased a 17-acre tract near Lunenberg, Massachusetts, and began a 55-year plant breeding career.
456 In 1871 he developed the Burbank potato, which was introduced in Ireland to help combat the blight epidemic. He sold the rights to the Burbank potato for $150, which he used to travel to Santa Rosa, California. In Santa Rosa, he established a nursery garden, greenhouse, and experimental farms that have become famous throughout the world.
458 He worked by effecting multiple crosses of foreign and native strains to obtain seedlings, which he grafted onto fully developed plants for rapid assessment of hybrid characteristics.
460 Burbank carried on his plant hybridization and selection on a huge scale. At any one time he maintained as many as 3,000 experiments involving millions of plants. In his work on plums, he tested about 30,000 new varieties. The Plant Patent Act of 1930 amended U.S. patent law to permit protection of new and distinct varieties of asexually reproduced plants, other than tuber-propagated plants. This legislation resulted from the growing awareness that plant breeders had no financial incentive to enter plant breeding because they could not exercise control over their discoveries. In supporting this legislation, Thomas A. Edison testified: ' This (bill) will, I feel sure, give us many Burbanks.' Plant Patent Nos. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 41, 65, 66, 235, 266, 267, 269, 290, 291, and 1041 were issued to Burbank posthumously.
1912 462 Joseph H. Burckhalter  Born Oct 9 1912  Isothiocyanate Compounds and Means of Producing the Same Med Isothiocyanate Compounds (Antigen)
472 Antibodies are the body's protectors. When antigens, such as bacteria or viruses, enter the body, antibodies from a previous infection or vaccine combine with them and deactivate the invaders.
474 During the 1950s, as medical researchers came to understand this relationship, it became a priority to identify antigens.
1980 476 Joseph Burckhalter and Robert Seiwald made an essential contribution to the identification of antigens through the synthesis of fluorescein isothiocyanate, better known as FITC. 
480 The first practical and first patented antibody labeling agent, the stable, yellow-green-fluorescent compound has become widely used for rapid, accurate, and economic diagnosis of infectious diseases.
482 FITC has played an important role in identifying the cause of AIDS and can be used to distinguish between different strains of streptococci. It has proved infallible in tests for syphilis. FITC and red RITC (rhodamine isothiocyanate) are used together to quickly diagnose leukemia and lymphoma.
484 FITC also paved the way for the development of other labeling procedures, such as radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immosorbent assay (ELISA). 
488 Born in Columbia, South Carolina, Burckhalter earned a B.S. in chemistry from the University of South Carolina in 1934, an M.S. in organic chemistry from the University of Illinois, Urbana, in 1938, and a Ph.D. in medicinal chemistry from the University of Michigan in 1942. He then worked at Parke-Davis. From the pain-relieving drug now Tylenol, he derived Camoquin, a cure for malaria. Burckhalter was a professor of medicinal chemistry at the University of Michigan from 1960 to 1983. Since 1983 he has been a research professor at Florida Institute of Technology. 
1857 490 William Seward Burroughs  Born Jan 28 1857 - Died Sep 14 1898  Calculating Machine Tool Calculator
1883 500 William Seward Burroughs invented the first practical adding and listing machine. Burroughs submitted a patent application in 1885 for his 'Calculating Machine' and the patent was awarded in 1888. In 1886 Burroughs and several St. Louis businessmen formed the American Arithmometer Co. to market the machine. The first machine, however, required a special knack in pulling the handle to execute the calculation correctly. More often than not novice users would get wildly differing sums depending on the vigor they employed in using the invention. In 1893 Burroughs received a patent for an improved calculating machine, which incorporated an oil-filled 'dashpot,' a hydraulic governor. This device enabled the machine to operate properly regardless of the manner with which the handle might be pulled. 
508 Born in Rochester, New York, Burroughs began his career as a bank clerk in the Cayuga County National Bank in Auburn, New York. His poor health necessitated a move to a warmer climate, however, and he relocated to St. Louis in 1882. Working in a bank inspired the young inventor with a vision of a mechanical device that would relieve accountants and bookkeepers of the monotony of their tasks and ensure that a smaller percentage of their time was spent correcting errors. Burroughs began work on his mechanical accounting device shortly after he moved to St. Louis. A sympathetic shop owner, Joseph Boyer, encouraged his work by giving him bench space at the Boyer Machine Shop and provided him with a young assistant, Alfred Doughty, later president of the Burroughs Adding Machine Company. Burroughs retired from his company in 1897 due to poor health and moved to Citronelle, Alabama. By 1898, the year Burroughs died, more than 1,000 machines had been sold, and by 1926 the company, renamed the Burroughs Adding Machine Company, had produced a million machines.
1865 510 William Meriam Burton  Born Nov 17 1865 - Died Dec 29 1954  Manufacture of Gasoline Chem Catalytic Cracking
1900 520 Chemist and oil industry executive William Meriam Burton recognized the need for altering the methods of refining crude oil at the turn of the century to produce gasoline and developed the first commercially successful process for cracking crude oil into gasoline and other products. 
524 Burton demonstrated the value of laboratory research and testing, and the cracking process he developed more than doubled the potential yield of gasoline from crude oil. During its first 15 years in use the process saved more than 1 billion barrels of crude oil. 
528 Born in Cleveland, Ohio, Burton received his preliminary education at public schools in his hometown and graduated with a B.A. from Western Reserve University in 1886. He did graduate work in chemistry at Johns Hopkins University and received a Ph.D. in 1889. Burton started work at Standard Oil in Cleveland as a chemist and in 1890 transferred to Standard Oil of Indiana. There he later served as assistant superintendent and in 1895 became superintendent of the refinery. He was elected a director of the company in 1911, vice president in 1915, and president in 1918. He continued as president until he retired in 1927.
1904 530 Donald L. Campbell  Born Aug 5 1904  Method of and Apparatus for Contacting Solids and Gases Chem Catalytic Cracking
1942 540 Donald Campbell was one of four Exxon Research & Engineering Co. (ER&E) inventors who revolutionized the petroleum industry through fluid catalytic cracking, a process that greatly increases the yield of high-octane gasoline from crude oil.
542 Campbell and his colleagues began thinking of a design that would allow for a moving catalyst, to ensure a steady and continuous cracking operation. The four ultimately invented a fluidized solids reactor bed and a pipe transfer system between the reactor and the regenerator unit in which the catalyst is processed for re-use. In this way, the solids and gases are continuously brought in contact with each other to bring on the chemical change. 
546 This work culminated in a 100 barrel-per-day demonstration pilot plant. The first commercial production plant processed 13,000 barrels of heavy oil daily, making 275,000 gallons of gasoline. 
550 Campbell, born in Clinton, Iowa, was always fascinated by inventing and solving problems. He first attended Iowa State University, then MIT and the Harvard Business School. During his 41 years at Exxon, 25 were spent at ER&E. At his retirement in 1969, he held 30 patents and was assistant to the vice president of New Areas of Research.
1916 552 Marvin Camras  Born Jan 1 1916 - Died Jun 23 1995  Method and Means of Magnetic Recording Elec Magnetic Recording
1938 562 Marvin Camras' inventions are used in modern magnetic tape and wire recorders, including high frequency bias, improved recording heads, wire and tape material, magnetic sound for motion pictures, multitrack tape machines, stereophonic sound reproduction, and video tape recording. 
566 Before and during World War II his early wire recorders were used by the military to train pilots. Battle sounds were recorded and equipment was developed to amplify it by thousands of watts. The recordings were placed where the invasion of D-Day was not to take place, giving false information to the Germans. The public first heard of Camras' work after the war had ended. 
570 Born in Chicago, Illinois, Camras received a B.S. in 1940, an M.S. in 1942, and an Honorary Doctorate in 1978 from the Illinois Institute of Technology. He had spent most of his working life at the IIT Research Institute, where he served as senior scientific adviser. In the 1930s Camras developed a successful wire recorder. Camras received more than 500 patents, largely in the field of electronic communications.
1906 572 Chester F. Carlson  Born Feb 8 1906 - Died Sep 19 1968  Electrophotography Elec Electrophotography (Xerox) / Instant Copying
1947 582 Physicist Chester F. Carlson, the father of xerographic printing, was born in Seattle, Washington. Plagued by needs for copies of patent drawings and specifications, Carlson investigated ways of automatic text and illustration reproduction, working out of his apartment. While others sought chemical or photographic solutions to 'instant copying' problems, Carlson turned to electrostatics and in 1938 succeeded in obtaining his first 'dry-copy' and the first of many patents two years later. It took presentations to more than 20 companies before Carlson was able to interest the Battelle Development Corporation in his invention in 1944. In 1947 the Haloid Company-renamed Xerox Corporation-negotiated commercial rights to his xerographic development. Eleven years later, and just 10 years before his death in 1968, Xerox introduced its first office copier. 
590 As a high school student, Carlson published a chemical magazine to support his invalid parents. His interest in printing continued through his physics degree program at the California Institute of Technology and into his early career at the electronics firm P.R. Mallory Company, where he began working for the patent department in 1930.
1896 592 Wallace Hume Carothers  Born Apr 27 1896 - Died Apr 29 1937  Diamine-Dicarboxylic Acid Salts and Process of Preparing Same; Synthetic Fiber Chem Synthetic Rubber
1935 602 Wallace Hume Carothers, who has been called one of the most brilliant organic chemists ever employed by E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, spent only nine years at Du Pont before his death. But in that time he made contributions to the theory of organic chemistry that led to the invention of polymeric materials such as the synthetic materials nylon and neoprene, the first commercially successful synthetic rubber. During his brief period at Du Pont, Carothers first worked on the polymerization of acetylene and its derivatives; this led to the development by other scientists of neoprene. 
606 His most outstanding work involved the theory of linear polymerization, which he tested by synthesizing a large number of polymers structurally similar to cellulose and silk. This work culminated in the production of nylon, which is today used in a wide variety of applications including apparel, carpeting, home furnishings, and industrial products. The invention of nylon marked the beginning of a new era of synthetic fibers which is still expanding. 
610 Born in Burlington, Iowa, Carothers was educated in the public schools of Des Moines. He first studied accounting and secretarial courses then entered Tarkio College as a science student while simultaneously holding assistantships in English and commercial studies. After receiving a B.S. from Tarkio, Carothers obtained his master's and doctor's degrees from the University of Illinois. He held teaching positions briefly at the University of South Dakota, University of Illinois, and Harvard University before joining Du Pont in 1928 as head of fundamental research in organic chemistry.
1876 612 Willis Haviland Carrier  Born Nov 26 1876 - Died Oct 9 1950  Apparatus for Treating Air Home Air Conditioner
1911 622 American engineer and inventor Willis Haviland Carrier developed the formulae and equipment that made air conditioning possible. The world's first spray type air conditioning equipment was Carrier's 'Apparatus for Treating Air,' which he correctly predicted would be used to enhance comfort as well as improve industrial processes and products. In 1911 Carrier disclosed his basic 'Rational Psychrometric Formulae' to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The formulae still stand as the basis for all fundamental calculations in the air conditioning industry. His development of the first safe, low pressure centrifugal refrigeration machine using nontoxic, nonflammable refrigerant marked the beginning of the era of comfort cooling. 
626 Carrier's early work in developing centrifugal refrigeration machines led to new safe refrigerants for which he also received several patents. By controlling humidity as well as temperature, he invented air conditioning as we know it today. 
630 Born near Angola in western New York, Carrier attended Cornell University and graduated with an M.E. in 1901. Only one year later his first installation of scientific air conditioning was in operation, controlling both temperature and humidity in a Brooklyn printing plant. Carrier and several other engineers formed the Carrier Engineering Corporation in 1915 with capital of $35,000.
1860 632 George Washington Carver Born Jan 1 1860 - Died Jan 5 1943  Cosmetic and Process of Producing the Same; Paint and Stain and Process of Producing the Same Peanut Products Ag Agricultural chemist George Washington Carver developedcrop-rotation methods for conserving nutrients in soil and discovered hundreds of new uses for crops such as the peanut, which created new markets for farmers, especially in the South.
1910 644 At Tuskegee, Carver developed his crop rotation method, which alternated nitrate producing legumes-such as peanuts and peas-with cotton, which depletes soil of its nutrients. Following Carver's lead, southern farmers soon began planting peanuts one year and cotton the next. While many of the peanuts were used to feed livestock, large surpluses quickly developed. Carver then developed 325 different uses for the extra peanuts-from cooking oil to printers ink. When he discovered that the sweet potato and the pecan also enriched depleted soils, Carver found almost 20 uses for these crops, including synthetic rubber and material for paving highways.
648 Born of slave parents in Diamond Grove, Missouri, Carver was rescued from Confederate kidnappers as an infant. He began his education in Newton County in southwest Missouri, where he worked as a farm hand and studied in a one-room schoolhouse. He went on to excel at Minneapolis High School in Kansas. Though denied admission to Highland University because of his race, Carver gained acceptance to Simpson College in Indianola, Iowa, in 1887.
650 Intent on a science career, he transferred to Iowa Agricultural College (now Iowa State University) in 1891 and gained a B.S. in 1894 and an M.S. in agriculture in 1897. Later that year Booker T. Washington, founder of the Tuskegee Institute, convinced Carver to come south and serve as the school's director of agriculture. Upon his death, Carver contributed his life savings to establish a research institute at Tuskegee. His birthplace was declared a national monument in 1953. 
1935 652 Stan Cohen  Born Feb 17 1935  Process for Producing Biologically Functional Molecular Chimeras Med Genetic Engineering
1975 662 Herb Boyer was with the University of California, San Francisco when he began investigating DNA with Stan Cohen. Their experiments marked the beginning of genetic engineering and launched the multi-billion dollar biotechnology industry. By early 1973, Boyer and Cohen determined that they were able to add genes from an organism to a simple cell; the genes would then replicate in the cell. Their recombinant DNA patents generated over $250 million in royalties before expiring. Recombinant DNA technology is considered the most significant achievement in molecular biology since Watson & Crick's work in 1953. After working with Cohen, Boyer joined forces with venture capitalist Robert Swanson to create the biotechnology firm Genentech, Inc. Since its founding in 1976, Genentech has produced a number of firsts such as genetically engineered human insulin. Genetically altered crops are also being researched to deal with global food supply issues. 
670 Cohen was born in Perth Amboy, New Jersey. He graduated from Rutgers University in 1956 and from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1960. He joined the faculty of the Stanford University School of Medicine in 1968, where he remains today. His many awards include the National Medal of Science and the National Medal of Technology.
1923 672 Frank B. Colton  Born Mar 3 1923  Estradiene Compounds Med Oral Contraceptives
1960 682 Frank B. Colton developed Enovid, the first oral contraceptive. Colton has made many important contributions to medicinal organic chemistry and particularly to steroid chemistry. His pioneering research on the relationship between structure and biological activity, particularly of 19-nor steroids, led to the development of Nilevar, the first orally active anabolic agent which had a distinct separation between protein building and masculinizing properties. 
686 Of even greater importance was his research which resulted in the discovery of Enovid. The introduction of this substance in 1960 for family planning purposes ushered in the era of oral contraception. 
690 Born in Poland, Colton immigrated to the United States in 1934. He obtained his B.S. and M.S. degrees in chemistry from Northwestern University in 1945 and 1946 and his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1950. Between 1949 and 1951 Colton was a research fellow at the Mayo Foundation, where he was associated with the Nobel Laureate Edward C. Kendall and helped develop an improved synthesis of cortisone. Colton joined G.D. Searle and Company in 1951 as a senior research chemist and after a series of more progressively responsible positions retired in 1986 as research adviser.
1923 692 Lloyd H. Conover  Born Jun 13 1923  Tetracycline Med Tetracycline
1955 702 Lloyd H. Conover invented the antibiotic tetracycline, which became the most prescribed broad spectrum antibiotic in the United States within three years and remains the drug of choice for a number of serious bacterial infections. 
706 Tetracycline was the first therapeutically superior drug to be made by chemical alteration of an antibiotic produced by microbial metabolism. It sparked a wide-scale search for superior structurally modified antibiotics, which has provided most of the important antibiotic discoveries made since then. 
710 Born in Orange, New Jersey, Conover received his A.B. from Amherst College in 1947 and a Ph.D. from the University of Rochester in 1950. At first he thought he wanted to teach, but he joined the fledgling Chemical Research Department of Pfizer instead. There he joined a team which was exploring the molecular architecture of the broad-spectrum antibiotics Terramycin and Aureomycin. The tetracycline patent was attacked in court from its issue in 1955 until the final ruling in 1982. But Conover's patent was consistently upheld by the courts. Conover also led the Pfizer team which, in collaboration with Harvard Professor R.B. Woodward, first synthesized biologically active tetracycline antibiotic from simple molecular building blocks. Together with coinventors W.C. Austin and J.W. McFarland, Conover patented the anthelmintic drugs pyrantel and morantel in 1972. Pyrantel remains a leading drug for the treatment of most of the intestinal worm parasites of man. Each of these drugs also retains an important place in the control of such parasites in farm and companion animals. Conover became research director at Pfizer Central Research in Sandwich, England, in 1971. He retired as a senior vice president in 1984. 
1873 712 William D. Coolidge  Born Oct 23 1873 - Died Feb 4 1975  Vacuum Tube (X-Ray) Elec Vacuum Tube (X-Ray)
1928 722 William D. Coolidge's name is inseparably linked with the X-ray tube-popularly called the 'Coolidge tube.' 
726 This invention completely revolutionized the generation of X-rays and remains to this day the model upon which all X-ray tubes for medical applications are patterned. 
730 Coolidge, born in Hudson, Massachusetts, graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1896, majoring in electrical engineering. He received his Ph.D. in 1899 from the University of Leipzig. He later returned to MIT, working first as an instructor and later as an assistant professor. Coolidge joined the staff of General Electric Company's Research Laboratory in 1905 and early in his career played a major role in the development of the modern incandescent lamp. He invented ductile tungsten, the filament material still used in such lamps. He worked on many other devices such as high-quality magnetic steel, improved ventilating fans, and the electric blanket. During World War II he contributed research to projects involving radar and radar countermeasures. He was awarded 83 patents during his lifetime
1877 732 Frederick G. Cottrell  Born Jan 10 1877 - Died Nov 16 1948  Art of Separating Suspended Particles from Gaseous Bodies Chem Electrostatic Precipitator
742 As industrial smokestacks became a common sight at the turn of the century, Frederick Cottrell realized that pollution might be controlled and that valuable raw materials were vanishing into the atmosphere with the unwanted gases. In 1907 he applied for a patent for a device that passed high-voltage direct current to a discharge electrode which leaked the charge onto particles passing by in the fumes. These charged particles were then electrically attracted to an electrode with an opposite charge, where they could be collected and retrieved as valuable minerals or chemical compounds. 
1908 746 Cottrell's electrostatic precipitator, which became known simply as a 'Cottrell,' removed from 90 to 98 percent of all particles from escaping smoke and gases. The term 'cottrell' can still be found in the unabridged dictionary. 
750 Cottrell was born in Oakland, California, and his childhood hobbies included photography, electricity, telegraphy, and publishing a weekly newspaper. In 1896 he received his B.S. from the University of California at Berkeley. He then taught high school chemistry, before receiving his doctorate from the University of Leipzig in 1902. In 1912, with the help of Charles Walcott, then secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Cottrell founded Research Corporation, a nonprofit group that plowed money from the precipitator and other inventions back into the advancement of science. The Research Corporation has since funded basic research on such important inventions as Williams' Vitamin B1, Goddard's rockets, and Lawrence's cyclotron. Later Cottrell worked for the Federal Bureau of Mines, the National Research Council, and the Department of Agriculture.
1925 752 Seymour Cray  Born Sep 28 1925 - Died Oct 5 1996  Computer Vector Register Processing Comp Supercomputer
1976 762 Seymour Cray unveiled the CRAY-1 in 1976, considered the first supercomputer. 
766 The CRAY-2, his second supercomputer, came in 1985. The amount of silicon chips used in CRAY-2 caused a problem because they overheated so intensely during use. By immersing CRAY-2 in a cooling bath of liquid fluorocarbon, Cray kept the chips from melting. Cray's theory for success with the CRAY-3 was to substitute revolutionary new gallium arsenide integrated circuits for the traditional silicon ones. 
770 Born in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, Cray was interested in chemistry and radio as a child. After a brief service during World War II, he went to the University of Minnesota where he studied engineering. In 1951 he joined Engineering Research Associates which was developing computers for the Navy. Later he co-founded Control Data Corporation, and in 1972 he founded CRAY Research. In 1988 he founded Cray Computer in Colorado Springs where he worked on CRAY-3.
772 Shortly before his death in 1996, he founded SRC Computers, Inc.
1936 774 Raymond V. Damadian  Born Mar 16 1936  Apparatus and Method for Detecting Cancer in Tissue Med MRI
1984 784 Raymond Damadian invented the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, which has revolutionized the field of diagnostic medicine. The MRI obtains information through the use of static and dynamic magnetic fields, a method that yields radio signal outputs from the body's tissue that can be either transformed into images or analyzed to provide the chemical composition of the tissue being examined. 
788 His MRI produced images of the interior of the body far more detailed than was possible with X-ray devices such as the CAT scanner. Since the device's approval in 1984 by the Food and Drug Administration hundreds have been put to use in medical institutions around the world. 
792 Born in Forest Hills, New York, Damadian attended the Juilliard School of Music for eight years, studying violin. He received his B.S. in mathematics in 1956 from the University of Wisconsin and an M.D. degree from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York in 1960. Damadian later served as a fellow in nephrology at Washington University School of Medicine and as a fellow in biophysics at Harvard University, where he completed academic work in physics, physical chemistry, and mathematics. He studied physiological chemistry at the School of Aerospace Medicine in San Antonio, Texas. After serving in the Air Force, Damadian joined the faculty of the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center in 1967. His training in medicine and physics led him to develop a new theory of the living cell, his Ion Exchanger Resin Theory. Damadian founded the FONAR Corporation in 1978 for the manufacture of the MRI scanner.
1907 794 George de Mestral  Born Jun 19 1907 - Died Feb 8 1990  Velvet Type Fabric and Method of Producing the Same Home Velcro
1955 804 In 1955, George de Mestral patented VELCRO® hook and loop fasteners, an efficient way to fasten fabrics and other materials. The idea came to him after observing the way a burr’s barbed hooks clung to clothing. He found the logistics of attaching hundreds of tiny hooks to cloth tape to be a challenge, but eventually his hook and loop fastener was manufactured as VELCRO®, derived from the French words velour (velvet) and crochet (hooks). Although most hook and loop tapes are nylon-based, there are also varieties made from plastic, stainless steel, and silver-impregnated substances for electrical applications. 
808 VELCRO® fasteners have provided society with a practical and effective tool. Touch fasteners are used in clothing, aircraft, office equipment, and sporting and leisure equipment. They are also used in the automotive and medical industries, nuclear engineering, and NASA’s space program. 
812 De Mestral was born in a small village near Lausanne, Switzerland. By working odd jobs, he paid his way through the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, where he graduated as an electrical engineer. He began his own company to manufacture VELCRO® fasteners, and later sold it and all patent rights. Today, the Velcro companies continue to manufacture touch fasteners and other products.
1957 813 Mark Dean  Born Mar 2 1957  Microcomputer System with Bus Control Means for Peripheral Processing Devices Comp Peripherals
1980 823 Mark Dean and his co-inventor Dennis Moeller created a microcomputer system with bus control means for peripheral processing devices. 
827 Their invention paved the way for the growth in the Information Technology industry by allowing the use of plug-in subsystems and peripherals like disk drives, video gear, speakers, and scanners. 
831 Born in Jefferson City, Tennessee, Dean received his undergraduate degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Tennessee, his MSEE from Florida Atlantic University and his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University. Early in his career at IBM, Dean was chief engineer working with IBM personal computers. The IBM PS/2 Models 70 and 80 and the Color Graphics Adapter are among his early work; he holds three of IBM’s original nine PC patents.
833 Currently, Dean is Vice President of Systems Research. Dean was named an IBM fellow in 1996 and in 1997 received the Black Engineer of the Year President’s Award. Dean holds more than twenty patents.
1804 835 John Deere  Born Feb 7 1804 - Died May 17 1886  Improvement in Plows Ag Plows
1838 845 John Deere developed the first American cast steel plow. The implements being used by pioneer farmers of that day were cumbersome and ineffective for cutting and turning the prairie soil. To alleviate the problem, Deere and a partner, Major Leonard Andrus, designed three new plows in 1838. Their cutting part was made from steel cut from an old sawmill blade and shaped by bending it over a log. The moldboard, used for lifting and turning, was made of wrought iron and polished on the upper surface to prevent clogging. 
849 The plow was so successful that by 1846 Deere and his partner were selling a thousand a year. Deere then sold his interest in the Grand Detour enterprise to Andrus and organized a plow company in Moline, Illinois. After experimenting with imported English steel, he had a cast steel plow made for him in Pittsburgh. By 1855 he was selling more than 13,000 such plows a year. 
853 Born in Rutland, Vermont, Deere served a four-year apprenticeship to a blacksmith and worked in that trade until 1837, when he moved to Grand Detour, Illinois. In 1868 his business was incorporated as Deere & Company, which is still in existence today.
1873 855 Lee Deforest  Born Aug 26 1873 - Died Jun 30 1961  Space Telegraphy Telcom Radio
1905 865 In the early 1900s, the great requirement for further development of radio was an efficient and delicate detector of electromagnetic radiation. Lee de Forest provided that detector. DeForest found a clue to creating the long-sought detector of electromagnetic radiation in John A. Fleming's invention of the so-called electronic valve. The most serious drawback of the Fleming valve was that it was relatively insensitive to changes in the intensity of incident electromagnetic radiation. Moreover, the Fleming valve could act only as a rectifier, not an amplifier. DeForest's simple but revolutionary answer was to insert a third electrode between the cathode and the anode. The audion amplifier was the most important of de Forest's more than 300 patents. 
873 Born at Council Bluffs, Iowa, de Forest at an early age exhibited the inventive talents that were to make him famous. His father sent him to the Mt. Hermon (Massachusetts) School for Boys and from there he entered Yale University. While in college, he continued to invent-an improved typebar movement for his typewriter, an improved compass joint, a 'puzzle game'-all to help defray his expenses. After receiving his B.S., he continued his studies at Yale and received his Ph.D. in 1899. De Forest's doctorate thesis was on the "Reflection of Hertzian Waves from the Ends of Parallel Wires"; thus began his long career in radio 
1932 875 Robert Dennard  Born Sep 5 1932  Field-Effect Transistor Memory Comp DRAM
1968 885 Robert Heath Dennard invented one-transistor Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM), which allowed major increases in computer memory density and decreases in cost. 
889 It became the standard of the industry for RAM and enabled the microcomputer revolution. It is now commonly used in all forms of business and personal computers. 
893 Born in Terrell, Texas, he received BS (1954) and MS (1956) degrees in Electrical Engineering from Southern Methodist University. In 1958 he received a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Carnegie Institute of Technology and joined IBM's Research Division. Since 1963, he has been at IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center, where he has worked on field-effect transistors, integrated circuit design, and memory cells and organizations. Dennard received the patent for one-transistor DRAM in 1968.
895 Dennard has been a pioneer in scaling theory, which provides rules for making circuits smaller in every dimension. An IBM fellow since 1979, his awards include the National Medal of Technology, presented by President Reagan and the Harvey Prize, from Technion (the Israel Institute of Technology).
1858 897 Rudolf Diesel  Born Mar 18 1858 - Died Sep 29 1913  Internal-Combustion Engine Tool Internal-Combustion Engine
1896 907 Though best known for his invention of the pressure-ignited heat engine that bears his name, the French-born Rudolf Diesel was also an eminent thermal engineer, a connoisseur of the arts, a linguist, and a social theorist. Diesel's inventions have three points in common: They relate to heat transference by natural physical processes or laws; they involve markedly creative mechanical design; and they were initially motivated by the inventor's concept of sociological needs. Diesel originally conceived the diesel engine as a facility, readily adaptable in size and costs and utilizing locally available fuels, to enable independent craftsmen and artisans better to endure the powered competition of large industries that then virtually monopolized the predominant power source-the oversized, expensive, fuel-wasting steam engine. 
911 His engines were used to power pipelines, electric and water plants, automobiles and trucks, and marine craft, and soon after were used in applications including mines, oil fields, factories, and transoceanic shipping. 
915 During 1885 Diesel set up his first shop-laboratory in Paris and began his 13-year ordeal of creating his distinctive engine. At Augsburg, on August 10, 1893, Diesel's prime model, a single 10-foot iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time. Diesel spent two more years at improvements and on the last day of 1896 demonstrated another model with the spectacular, if theoretical, mechanical efficiency of 75.6 percent, in contrast to the then-prevailing efficiency of the steam engine of 10 percent or less. Although commercial manufacture was delayed another year and even then begun at a snail's pace, by 1898 Diesel was a millionaire from franchise fees in great part international.
1901 917 Walt Disney  Born Dec 5 1901 - Died Dec 15 1966  Multiplane Camera Video Multiplane Camera
1937 927 Seldom has an individual become so intrinsically linked to a concept as Walt Disney has with the concept of imagination. His was the catalyst for his incredible body of work, which in turn fed the imagination of millions who have been inspired by it. Disney’s invention of the multiplane camera brought better looking, richer animation and in 1937, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was the first full-length animated film to use the camera. 
929 The movies that Disney created are amazingly diverse and illustrate the range of his inventiveness. 
933 Today, Mickey Mouse and many other Disney characters are recognized and revered by millions around the world.
935 Not only did his work delight and entertain audiences, but it also created opportunities for the many talented individuals who worked for and with him to craft these masterpieces. Part of Disney’s genius lay in his ability to conceive new images and projects and then effectively direct others in bringing them to fruition. 
939 Disney's rise to fame is a classic American success story. From humble farmland beginnings, he rose to great heights through hard work, creativity, ingenuity and resilience. Fueled by his extraordinary imagination, he revolutionized animation, transforming the animated cartoon into an entirely new and different art form.
941 In 1928, he introduced Mickey Mouse in the sound cartoon, Steamboat Willie. Disney’s full-length animated features included the favorites Pinocchio, Fantasia, Dumbo and Bambi. Disney also pioneered the entertainment-complex concept with Disneyland in California and took it to a new level with Walt Disney World in Florida. He earned more than 30 Academy Awards, an honorary degree from Harvard and the Medal of Freedom, presented to him by President Lyndon Johnson in 1964. 
1923 943 Carl Djerassi  Born Oct 29 1923  Oral Contraceptives Med Oral Contraceptives
1951 953 Carl Djerassi is recognized for his breakthroughs in chemistry and for his effective translation of theory into practice. His achievements include establishing physical methods for determining organic molecular structure and the synthesis of many steroids. 
957 His work led to oral contraceptives, antihistamines, and anti-inflammatory agents. 
961 Born in Vienna, Austria, Djerassi graduated from Kenyon College with an A.B. degree (Organic Chemistry) in 1942 and received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin in 1945. He was a research chemist from 1942 to 1952, and professor at Wayne State University from 1952 to 1959. He became a professor (chemistry) at Stanford University in 1959. Djerassi is widely known for his contributions to synthetic organic chemistry and to physical methods of determining organic molecular structure, his effectiveness in translating scientific knowledge into technological practice, and his efforts to promote international scientific cooperation. His research is in such diverse fields as chemistry of steroids; structure of alkaloids, antibiotics and terpenoids; synthesis of drugs, particularly antihistamines, oral contraceptives, and anti-inflammatory agents; optical rotatory dispersion studies, organic mass spectrometry, and magnetic circular diehroism of organic compounds. He has lectured extensively on birth control issues. 
1866 963 Herbert Henry Dow  Born Feb 26 1866 - Died Oct 16 1930  Process of Extracting Bromine Chem Bromine Extraction
1889 973 Herbert Henry Dow, founder of the Dow Chemical Company, was one of the creators of the modem American chemical industry. His inventions included such diverse items as electric light carbons, steam and internal combustion engines, automatic furnace controls, and water seals, but most of his inventions were chemical in nature. 
977 Most of his chemical patents were for truly "pioneer" inventions. The remainder were practical improvements which took halogen science from theory to reality, creating employment and an environment which encouraged a healthy combination of basic and applied research. The combined effect of his inventions was to improve the quality of life for millions of people around the world. 
981 Born in Belleville in Ontario, Canada, Dow received his formal training from Case School of Applied Science and graduated in 1888 with a B.S. degree. 
983 As a young man Dow entered the rudimentary chemical industry of the 1890s by inventing an entirely new method of extracting bromine from the prehistoric brine trapped underground at Midland, Michigan. His first patent was issued in 1889, and by 1933 he had over 90 patents. He is best known for his work in halogen chemistry, particularly the production of bromine and chlorine.
985 Dow was a public-spirited citizen, serving on boards of public works and education for many years. His favorite saying was, "If we can't do it better than the others, why do it?"
1901 987 Charles Stark Draper  Born Oct 2 1901 - Died Jul 25 1987  Gyroscopic Apparatus Tool Stabilizing Gyroscpic
1939 997 Aeronautical engineer and university professor Charles Stark Draper developed gyroscope systems that stabilized and balanced gunsights and bombsights, which were later expanded to an inertial guidance system for launching long-range missiles at supersonic jet targets. Having already established his credentials as a scientist and educator at MIT, Draper was named head of the institute's Instrumentation Laboratory in 1939. There he developed a spinning gyroscope, stabilizing Navy antiaircraft gunsights. 
1001 Success led to gyroscopic-balanced bombsights, which were later expanded to the inertial guidance system for missiles. Draper subsequently developed the Spatial Inertial Reference Equipment (SPIRE) system for automatic aeronautical navigation-a system he later refined and miniaturized for use in the Polaris submarine missile system. 
1005 Born in Windsor, Missouri, Charles Draper disliked specialization and so took several degrees from Stanford and a Doctor of Sciences in Physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1938. He continued to be a pace-setter in the space age as head of MIT's renamed Department of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering. His Instrumentation Lab was awarded the Project Apollo contract for guiding man and spacecraft to the moon.
1934 1007 Graham John Durant  Born Mar 14 1934  Pharmacologically Active Guanidine Compounds Med Tagamet - Cimetidine
1964 1017 Graham J. Durant, John Colin Emmett, and C. Robin Ganellin led the SmithKline Beecham Corporation's research team that discovered the H2 receptor class of drugs, including cimetidine, which inhibits the production of stomach acid. 
1019 Durant, Emmett, and Ganellin's work, begun in 1964 and done in collaboration with Nobel laureate biologist Sir James Black, established a physiological role for histamine in the control of gastric acid secretions-the major cause of ulcers. 
1023 The World Health Organization lists cimetidine, known by the brand name Tagamet, as one of the world's most essential drugs for its ability to heal stomach ulcers without surgery. 
1027 Born in Newport, Monmouthshire, Great Britain, Durant studied chemistry at Birmingham University (B.Sc., Ph.D.) and the State University of Iowa.
1029 He is the named inventor or coinventor of more than 150 U.S. patents in H2 antagonists and several other classes of drugs. He relocated to the United States in 1987, established the Center for Drug Design and Development at the University of Toledo, Ohio, and was its director until 1992. He is currently senior director of chemistry at Cambridge NeuroScience Inc. in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He also serves on the Board of Trustees of Inventure Place.
1854 1031 George Eastman  Born Jul 12 1854 - Died Mar 14 1932  Method and Apparatus for Coating Plates for use in Photography Photo Photography
1888 1041 Eastman began his search for a transparent and flexible film in 1884. The first commercial film, put into production a year later, was cut in narrow strips and wound on a roller device patented by Eastman and Walker. Film rolls sufficient for 100 exposures were mounted in a small box camera-the Kodak, which was introduced in 1888 priced at $25. The steady improvement of Edison's motion-picture camera also spurred Eastman to perfect a stronger film designed to fill that promising market. 
1045 'George Eastman's inventions of dry, rolled film and the hand-held cameras that could utilize it revolutionized photography. 
1049 Born in Waterville, New York, Eastman, in 1877, embarked upon the intricate tasks of preparing the necessary emulsions, coating the 'wet plates' on which most pictures were then taken, and developing the prints. He pursued eagerly all available literature on the subject and was attracted by a formula for a 'dry plate' emulsion that appeared in an English almanac. The formula suggested the possibility of reducing the size and weight of outdoor photographic equipment. Eastman had in mind the commercial prospects of dry plates and by 1879 was ready to embark on a business career. Patents were secured in England and America on his coating machine, and returns began to flow in from foreign lessees. As passing years brought increased wealth, Eastman became one of America leading philanthropists, giving away more than $100 million.
1903 1052 Harold E. Edgerton  Born Apr 6 1903 - Died Jan 4 1990  Stroboscope Photo Photography
1955 1062 Pioneering research in stroboscopic photography by Harold E. Edgerton was the foundation for the development of the modern electronic speed flash. Edgerton earned international recognition for his achievements in the related fields of stroboscopy and ultra-high speed photography. 
1066 The electronic speed flash his research spurred is important to science and industry as well as routine photography. He originally perfected the use of stroboscopic lights in both ultra-high-speed motion and still (stop-motion) photography capable of revealing operations which move at speeds beyond the perceptive capacity of the human eye (i.e., bullets in flight, light bulbs shattering, etc.). 
1070 Born in Fremont, Nebraska, Edgerton graduated from the University of Nebraska and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He joined MIT as a research assistant in 1927, became a professor in 1948, and was Institute professor emeritus from 1966 until his death. Edgerton also made significant contributions to underwater exploration and worked aboard the ship Calypso with Jacques Cousteau and his crew in explorations of sea floors in the Mediterranean and other locations. Edgerton was one of the founding partners of EG&G, Inc. (formerly Edgerton, Germeshausen and Grier), a company specializing in electronic technology, and also helped organize and build the New England Aquarium in Boston.
1837 1072 Edison , Thomas Alva  Born            1837 - Died          1931 Electric Lamp Elec Electric
1878 1074 One of the outstanding geniuses in the history of technology, Thomas Edison earned patents for more than a thousand inventions, including the incandescent electric lamp, the phonograph, the carbon telephone transmitter, and the motion-picture projector. In addition, he created the world's first industrial research laboratory. In September 1878, after having viewed an exhibition of a series of eight glaring 500-candlepower arc lights, Edison boldly announced he would invent a safe, mild, and inexpensive electric light that would replace the gaslight in millions of homes; moreover, he would accomplish this by an entirely different method of current distribution from that used for arc lights. To back the lamp effort, some of New York's leading financial figures joined with Edison in October 1878 to form the Edison Electric Light Company
1918 1076 Gertrude Belle Elion  Born Jan 23 1918 - Died Feb 21 1999  2-Amino-6-Mercaptopurine Med Anti-Leukemia drugs
1086 Gertrude Belle Elion invented the leukemia-fighting drug 6-mercaptopurine and drugs that facilitated kidney transplants. Hired by Burroughs-Wellcome (now Glaxo Wellcome) in 1944, she began work on antagonists of nucleic acid building blocks. This led to the synthesis of 6-mercaptopurine, a drug quickly marketed as Purinethol, and to another antileukemic drug, 6-thioguanine. Her continued research led to Imuran, a derivative of 6-mercaptopurine that was found to block the body's rejection of foreign tissues. 
1090 In combination with other drugs, Imuran enabled kidney transplants from unrelated donors. Elion and her team were prominent in the development of allopurinol (trade name Zyloprim), for treatment of gout, and of a new antiviral agent, acyclovir (Zovirax), which has been used to battle herpes virus infections. 
1094 Born in New York City, Elion attended Hunter College at the age of 15 and graduated summa cum laude in 1937. She received her M.S. in chemistry from New York University. From 1969 until her death, she received 25 honorary doctorates. Elion's early career included working as a high school teacher and as an analytical chemist. In 1988, Elion shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine with George Hitchings, her colleague of 40 years, and researcher Sir James Black. In 1967, she was named Head of the Department of Experimental Therapy at Burroughs-Wellcome. She officially retired in 1983. Elion continued her work toward the advancement of science through the World Health Organization, honorary university lectureships, and assisting students in medical research. Her name appears on 45 patents.
1939 1095 John Colin Emmett  Born Apr 27 1939  Pharmacologically Active Guanidine Compounds Med Tagamet - Cimetidine
1964 1105 Graham J. Durant, John Colin Emmett, and C. Robin Ganellin led the SmithKline Beecham Corporation's research team that discovered the H2 receptor class of drugs, including cimetidine, which inhibits the production of stomach acid. 
1107 Durant, Emmett, and Ganellin's work, begun in 1964 and done in collaboration with Nobel laureate biologist Sir James Black, established a physiological role for histamine in the control of gastric acid secretions-the major cause of ulcers. 
1111 The World Health Organization lists cimetidine, known by the brand name Tagamet, as one of the world's most essential drugs for its ability to heal stomach ulcers without surgery. 
1115 Born in Bradford, Yorkshire, England, Emmett read chemistry at Queen Mary College, London University (B.Sc., Ph.D.) and at Yale University. He is currently a consultant with Euromedica Ltd. He is named co-inventor on more than 100 U.S. patents in the fields of H2 antagonists, selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and selective thyromimetics. 
1925 1117 Douglas Engelbart  Born Jan 30 1925  X-Y Position Indicator for a Display System Comp Computer Mouse
1127 Douglas Engelbart's patent for the mouse is only a representation of his pioneering working designing modern interactive computer environments. 
1129 A main concern for Engelbert was how the computer could be used as a useful tool in tomorrow's office. While at SRI, he developed a hypermedia groupware system called NLS (oN-Line System). NLS utilized two-dimensional computerized text editing, and the mouse, used to position a pointer into text, was a critical component. During a 1968 demonstration, Engelbart first introduced NLS--this was the world debut of the mouse, hypermedia, and on-screen video teleconferencing. His project became the second host on Arpanet, predecessor of the Internet. 
1137 Engelbart was born and grew up near Portland, Oregon. He served in the Navy as an electronics technician during World War II, and received his B.S. from Oregon State University. After working for NASA's Ames Research Laboratory, he received a Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley. He then joined the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), earning a number of patents related to computer components. 
1139 In the 1970s and 1980s, Engelbart was a Senior Scientist at Tymshare, Inc., later acquired by McDonnell-Douglas. In 1989, he founded The Bootstrap Institute, which promotes the development of collective IQ through worldwide computer networks.
1803 1140 John Ericsson  Born Jul 31 1803 - Died Mar 8 1889  Propelling Steam Vessels Tool Screw Propeller
1862 1150 John Ericsson invented the ship propeller and incorporated the landmark device into his design for the Civil War ironclad the Monitor. In 1826 he moved to London, where he showed the breadth of his engineering genius by developing or improving transmission of power by compressed air, new types of steam boilers, condensers for marine steam engines (so ships could travel farther), placing warship engines below the water line (for protection against shell fire), the steam fire-engine, the design and construction of a steam locomotive (which competed with the historic Rocket, the first steam powered locomotive), an apparatus that made salt from brine, superheated steam engines, the flame or 'caloric' engine. His most enduring invention was the screw propeller, which is still the main form of marine propulsion. Early methods of applying steam power at sea-steam-driven oars, paddle wheels-were inefficient and, for warships, vulnerable to enemy attack. In 1839 Ericsson introduced propellers to vessels on the canals and inland waterways and commenced building a 'big frigate' for the U.S. Navy. He designed and built the Monitor for the Union Navy in 100 working days. It demonstrated its superior design-steam-propelled screw propeller, low in the water, a revolving gun turret, and iron construction rather than wood-by defeating the Confederate Merrimac. 
1158 Born in the Swedish province of Vermland, of educated parents, Ericsson first worked helping plan a Swedish canal. While working on the canal, he was tutored in math and the sciences. He joined the Swedish army at age 17 and did topographical surveyin
1941 1161 Federico Faggin  Born Dec 1 1941  Memory System for a Multi-Chip Digital Computer Comp CPU
1969 1171 One of the most important developments of the last half of the 20th century has been the microprocessor. It is found in virtually every automobile, medical device, and computer in the modern world. From its inception in 1969, the microprocessor industry has grown to hundreds of millions of units per year.
1173 In the late 1960s, many articles had discussed the possibility of a computer on a chip. However, all concluded that the integrated circuit technology was not yet ready. Ted Hoff was the first to recognize that Intel's new silicon-gated MOS technology might make a single-chip CPU possible if a sufficiently simple architecture could be developed. Hoff developed such an architecture with just over 2000 transistors.
1175 In 1969, the Japanese calculator manufacturer Busicom asked Intel to complete the design and manufacture of a new set of chips. Ted Hoff was assigned to work with Busicom's engineers. Hoff realized that the Busicom's 12-chip design -- separate chips for keyboard scanning, display control, printer control, and other functions -- could not meet the cost objectives for the project. He proposed an alternate architecture in which a single-chip general-purpose computer central processor (CPU) would be programmed to perform most of the calculator functions. Busicom accepted the Intel proposal.
1971 1177 Further refinements in architecture and logic design were made by Stanley Mazor and Federico Faggin and the chip was brought to silicon reality by Faggin. The first working CPU was delivered to Busicom in February, 1971. 
1181 This single chip had as much computing power as the first electronic computer, ENIAC (1946), which filled a room.
1183 Although there was an initial reluctance on the part of Intel marketing to undertake the support and sale of these products to general customers, Hoff, Mazor, and Faggin actively campaigned for their announcement to the industry and helped define a support strategy that the company could accept. Intel formally announced the "4004" CPU in November, 1971.
1185 The 4004 was designed and built under contract for Busicom -- they owned the rights to it. Intel acquired the rights by offering to return the $60,000 development cost and to produce the chip at a lower cost. As the basis for the modern computer revolution, maintaining rights on the 4004 technology appears to have been a good investment.
1187 Hoff, Mazor, and Faggin were involved in Intel's second and third generation CPUs, the 8008 and 8080.< 
1191 Dr. Federico Faggin was born in Vicenza, Italy December 1, 1941. He graduated from Instituto Industriale at Vicenza in 1960. He received a doctorate in physics from the University of Padua in 1965. In 1968, he came to the US to join Fairchild in Palo Alto where he developed the original silicon gate technology. The 4004 project brought him to Intel in 1970. In 1974 he founded Zilog, Inc. which produced a new chip design for the fledgling personal computer industry. After a short stint with Exxon, he co-founded Cygnet Technologies in 1982 and Synaptics, Inc. in 1986 where he is currently president. He is a recipient of the Marconi Fellowship and IEEE W. Wallace McDowell award.
1906 1193 Philo Taylor Farnsworth  Born Aug 19 1906 - Died Mar 11 1971  Television System Video Cathode-Ray Tube
1926 1203 Farnsworth's basic television patents covered scanning, focusing, synchronizing, contrast, controls, and power. He also invented the first cold cathode ray tubes and the first simple electronic microscope. He used radio waves to get direction (later called radar) and black light for seeing at night (used in World War II). 
1207 Philo Taylor Farnsworth's electronic inventions took all of the moving parts out of televisions and made possible today's TV industry, the TV shots from the moon, and satellite pictures. 
1211 Born in Beaver, Utah, Farnsworth, was educated in the Utah and Idaho public school systems and while at Rigby (Idaho) High School in 1921 delved into the molecular theory of matter, electrons and the Einstein theory. He also studied automobile engines and chemistry. Farnsworth attended high school at Provo in the fall of 1923 and in 1924 enrolled in Brigham Young University. He left the university at the end of his second year due to the death of his father. In 1926 Farnsworth joined the Crocker Research Laboratories in San Francisco. At the age of 20 he produced the first all-electronic television image. Crocker Research Laboratories was later reorganized as Television Laboratories, Inc., and in May 1929 was renamed Farnsworth Television Inc., of California.During the 1960s he worked on special-purpose TV, missiles, and the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Before his death, he worked on a nuclear fusion process to produce clean, virtually unlimited energy; he held two fusion energy patents. When he died at age 64, he held more than 300 U.S. and foreign patents. He was one of four inventors honored in September 1983 by the U.S. Postal Service with issuance of a stamp bearing his portrait.
1934 1213 James Fergason  Born Jan 12 1934  Display Devices Utilizing Liquid Crystal Light Modulation Video Liquid Crystal Display
1970 1223 James Fergason holds a series of patents that form the foundation of the multi-billion dollar LCD industry which has been rapidly growing since 1971. 
1970 1225 In 1970, Fergason made the first operating LCDs. Prior to this invention, LCDs used a large amount of power, provided a limited life, and had poor visual contrast. In 1971, the first LCDs were demonstrated publicly and enthusiastically accepted. 
1229 LCD technology, starting with quartz watches and calculators, has completely redefined many industries, such as computer displays, medical devices, industrial devices, and the vast array of consumer electronics. 
1233 Fergason was born in Wakenda, Missouri and attended the University of Missouri. After graduating, he formed and led the first industrial research group in liquid crystal research while at Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pennsylvania. There, he invented the first practical uses of liquid crystals. He joined the Liquid Crystal Institute at Kent State University in Ohio in the 1960s. While Associate Director, Fergason discovered the twisted nematic field effect of liquid crystals which forms the scientific basis of modern LCDs. Fergason, who holds over 100 U.S. patents, currently works as an independent inventor. Fergason, who holds over 100 U.S. patents, currently works as an independent inventor.
1901 1234 Enrico Fermi  Born Sep 29 1901 - Died Nov 28 1954  Neutronic Reactor Energy Nuclear Fission
1942 1244 While studying the creation of artificially radioactive isotopes in the 1930s, Enrico Fermi became the first physicist to split the atom. His later research pioneered nuclear power generation. Fermi is considered one of the most important architects of the nuclear age. 
1252 Born in Rome, Italy, Fermi graduated from the University of Pisa in 1922, became a lecturer at the University of Florence for two years and then a professor of theoretical physics at Rome. In 1934 he perfected his theory of beta ray emission in radioactivity, and went on to study the creation of artificially radioactive isotopes through neutron bombardment. His bombardment of uranium with slow neutrons caused reactions which were found later to be atomic fission. With Researcher Leo Szilard, he began work, first at Columbia then at the University of Chicago, on construction of an atomic pile which would make possible the controlled release of nuclear energy. This was accomplished in 1942.Transferred for a time to the Los Alamos, New Mexico atomic bomb laboratory, Fermi returned to Chicago in 1945 as a professor at the Institute for Nuclear Studies and in the same year became a United States citizen. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1938 for his developments in harnessing nuclear power.
1866 1254 Reginald Fessenden  Born Oct 6 1866 - Died Jul 22 1932  Apparatus for Signaling by Electromagnetic Waves Telcom Radio
1264 Reginald Fessenden is known for discovering amplitude modulation (AM) radioand explaining its scientific principles. With this heterodyne principle, he put into practice the idea of mixing two high frequency signals to carry the audible low frequency of the human voice. 
1906 1268 Fessenden became fascinated with the idea of wireless telegraphy as a childwhen he saw Bell demonstrate his telephone. He wondered from that point on if he could transmit voice without using wires. In 1900 he did just that transmitting his voice with his wireless telephone. Six years later, history was made on Christmas Eve when Fessenden transmitted the first radio broadcast from Brant Rock Station, Massachesetts. Ships at sea heard a broadcast that included Fessenden playing O Holy Night on the violin and reading a passage from the Bible. 
1272 Born in East Bolton, Quebec, Canada, Fessenden was well-educated when he was young. When he was eighteen, he became headmaster at a school in Bermuda. His work subsequently took him back to the U.S. to work with Thomas Edison and to help George Westinghouse light the 1892 Columbian Exposition in Chicago. He then investigated wireless radio communication with the U.S. Weather Bureau. Fessenden held over 200 patents, including a version of microfilm and an early form of sonar.
1934 1273 Thomas Fogarty  Born Feb 25 1934  Embolectomy Catheter Med Embolectomy Catheter
1963 1283 In 1963, Thomas Fogarty received a patent for his Fogarty® balloon embolectomy catheter, which has since become an industry standard. The device allows a thin balloon to be inserted into a patient's artery and guided through an occlusion. It is then inflated and withdrawn along with the blockage. Fogarty's catheter revolutionized vascular surgery--it is still the most widely used technique for blood clot removal--and encouraged advances for other minimally invasive surgeries, including angioplasty. 
1291 Working with his biomedical design engineers at Fogarty Research, Fogarty has developed many balloon devices that are used in laparoscopy-assisted surgical procedures. Other products include a minimally invasive device for breast cancer diagnosis and therapy and a self-expanding stent-graft used to treat aortic aneurysms less invasively to reduce trauma. A native of Cincinnati, Fogarty attended Xavier University and then went on to the University of Cincinnati Medical School.
1293 Currently a professor of cardiovascular surgery at the Stanford University Medical School, Fogarty is also an active venture capitalist, funding start-up medical companies through his firm Three Arch Partners. In 1981, he founded the Thomas Fogarty Winery, located near San Francisco. Fogarty holds over 70 patents and has won numerous awards
1863 1295 Henry Ford  Born Jul 30 1863 - Died Apr 7 1947  Transmission Mechanism Tool Automobile
1905 1305 Pioneering automotive engineer Henry Ford held many patents on automotive mechanisms. He is best remembered, however, for helping devise the factory assembly approach to production that revolutionized the auto industry by greatly reducing the time required to assemble a car. 
1313 Born in Wayne County, Michigan, Ford showed an early interest in mechanics, constructing his first steam engine at the age of 15. In 1893 he built his first internal combustion engine, a small one-cylinder gasoline model, and in 1896 he built his first automobile. In June 1903 Ford helped establish Ford Motor Company. He served as president of the company from 1906 to 1919 and from 1943 to 1945. In addition to earning numerous patents on auto mechanisms, Ford served as a vice president of the Society of Automotive Engineers when it was founded in 1905 to standardize U.S. automotive parts
1918 1314 Jay W. Forrester  Born Jul 14 1918  Multicoordinate Digital Information Storage Device Comp Random Access Memory
1954 1324 Jay W. Forrester was a pioneer in early digital computer development and invented random-access, coincident-current magnetic storage, which became the standard memory device for digital computers. 
1332 Born In Climax, Nebraska, Forrester lived on a Nebraska cattle ranch until he entered the University of Nebraska, where he received a B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering in 1939. Forrester received a M.S. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1945. Following his work in computers, Forrester turned his attention to societal systems. The field of system dynamics was created in 1956 under his leadership to evaluate how alternative policies affect growth, stability, fluctuation, and changing behavior in corporations, cities, and countries. He is currently Germeshausen Professor at MIT, where he directs the System Dynamics Program in the Alfred P. Sloan School of Management.
1913 1334 Alfred Free  Born Apr 11 1913 - Died May 15 2000  Composition of Matter Med Glucose Detection for Diabetes
1950 1344 In the mid-1940s, Alfred Free and Helen Murray were both chemists working together in the biochemistry research group at Miles Laboratories, Inc., in Elkhart, Indiana. Married in 1947, they continued their collaboration, becoming two of the world’s leading experts on urinalysis.The Frees co-authored two books: Urodynamics and Urinalysis in Laboratory Practice, both considered notable works in the field. 
1348 Their contributions include the development of dry reagents that have become the standard in laboratory urinalysis and the more consumer-oriented "dip-and-read" tests that first enabled diabetics to easily and accurately monitor their blood glucose levels on their own. 
1352 The Frees each had a career spanning more than 30 years at Miles Labs, now Bayer AG. Alfred Free earned his undergraduate degree at Miami University (Ohio) and his master’s and doctoral degrees at Western Reserve University (Ohio). Helen Free earned her undergraduate degree at the College of Wooster (Ohio) in 1944 and a master’s degree in management/health care administration from Central Michigan University in 1978.
1354 For their outstanding collaborative efforts, the Frees were awarded the Laboratory Public Service National Leadership Award in 1995. Although Alfred Free has passed away, his spirit of invention lives on. Helen Free continues to promote science education through programs around the world.
1934 1355 Charon Robin Ganellin  Born Jan 25 1934  Pharmacologically Active Guanidine Compounds Med Tagamet - Cimetidine
1964 1365 Graham J. Durant, John Colin Emmett, and C. Robin Ganellin led the SmithKline Beecham Corporation's research team that discovered the H2 receptor class of drugs, including cimetidine, which inhibits the production of stomach acid. 
1367 Durant, Emmett, and Ganellin's work, begun in 1964 and done in collaboration with Nobel laureate biologist Sir James Black, established a physiological role for histamine in the control of gastric acid secretions-the major cause of ulcers. 
1371 The World Health Organization lists cimetidine, known by the brand name Tagamet, as one of the world's most essential drugs for its ability to heal stomach ulcers without surgery. 
1375 Ganellin was born in London, England, and studied chemistry at Queen Mary College, London and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is currently with SmithKline and French professor of medicinal chemistry at University College London, where he is also director of the Upjohn European Discovery Unit. Ganellin is named as co-inventor on more than 100 U.S. patents.
1901 1377 Edmund Germer  Born Aug 24 1901 - Died Aug 10 1987  Discharge Device; Metal Vapor Lamp Home Fluorescent Lamp
1935 1387 Germer received the Frank P. Brown Medal from the Franklin Institute in 1954 for his fluorescent lamp. 
1391 Edmund Germer's development of the fluorescent lamp and the high-pressure mercury-vapor lamp significantly increased the efficiency of lighting devices, allowing for more economical lighting while producing less heat than incandescent light. 
1395 Germer was born in Berlin, the son of an accountant. He studied at the University of Berlin during the 1920s, earning a doctorate in lighting technology. His continual goal was to invent a better light source with higher lumen output and lower energy consumption compared to the incandescent lamp.
1397 While working so that he might continue his studies, he co-founded the Rectron Company which was involved in the development of inert gas-glowing cathode rectifiers. After resigning his position as chief physicist, he became a freelance inventor during the 1930s for companies such as Osram and Phillips. Both his fluorescent lamp and high-pressure mercury-vapor lamp were licensed to General Electric.
1399 After World War II, Germer was invited by Engelhardt Industries of Newark, New Jersey to continue his research at Hanovia. In 1951, he brought his wife and son to the United States. Between 1926 and 1955, his patents numbered 22 from the United States and 30 from Germany for being the sole inventor and 100 more in both countries as co-inventor. 
1920 1400 Charles P. Ginsburg  Born Jul 27 1920 - Died Apr 9 1992  Broad Band Magnetic Tape Systems and Method Elec Video Tape Recording
1951 1410 Charles Ginsburg led the research team at Ampex Corporation in developing the first practical videotape recorder (VTR). The system used a rapidly rotating recording head to apply high-frequency signals onto a reel of magnetic tape. 
1414 The VTR revolutionized television broadcasting. Ginsburg led the Ampex research team that developed a new machine that could run the tape at a much slower rate because the recording heads rotated at high speed, allowing the necessary high-frequency response. Recorded programs that could be edited replaced most live broadcasts. In 1956, CBS became the first network to employ VTR technology. 
1418 Born in San Francisco, California, Ginsburg graduated with a B.A. from San Jose State in 1948 then worked as a studio and transmitter engineer at a radio station in the San Francisco Bay area. In 1952 he joined the Ampex Corporation. He held the position of vice president of Advance Development at Ampex from 1975 until his retirement in 1986. Tape recording of television signals dates to just after World War II, when audio tape recorders were pushed to record the very high frequency signals needed for television. These early machines ran the tape at very high speeds-240 inches per second-to achieve high-frequency response. 
1882 1420 Robert Hutchings Goddard  Born Oct 5 1882 - Died Aug 10 1945  Control Mechanism for Rocket Apparatus Energy Solid Fuel Rockets
1915 1430 Robert Hutchings Goddard pioneered modern rocketry and space flight and founded a whole field of science and engineering. 
1438 Born in Worcester, Massachusetts, Goddard graduated from Worcester Polytechnic Institute in 1908 then became a physics instructor at Worcester Tech. At the same time he began graduate work at Clark University, where he received his M.A. in 1910 and a Ph.D. in 1911. Goddard was a research fellow at Princeton in 1912 and 1913 and the following year joined the faculty at Clark University, where he became a full professor in 1919. Goddard's interest in rockets began in 1899, when he was 17. As early as 1908 he conducted static tests with small solid-fuel rockets at Worcester Tech, and in 1912 he developed the detailed mathematical theory of rocket propulsion. In 1915 he proved that rocket engines could produce thrust in a vacuum and therefore make space flight possible. In 1916 the Smithsonian Institution provided funds for Goddard to continue his work on solid-propellant rockets and to begin development of liquid-fuel rockets as well. During World War I Goddard explored the military possibilities of rockets. He succeeded in developing several types of solid-fuel rockets to be fired from hand-held or tripod-mounted launching tubes, which were the basis of the bazooka and other powerful rocket weapons of World War II. Over the following two decades he produced a number of large liquid-fuel rockets at his shop and rocket range at Roswell, New Mexico. During World War II he was assigned by the U.S. Navy to develop rocket-assisted takeoff of carrier planes and variable-thrust liquid-fuel rocket motors. At the time of his death Goddard held 214 patents in rocketry.
1800 1440 Charles Goodyear  Born Dec 29 1800 - Died Jul 1 1860  Improvements in India-Rubber Fabrics Chem Vulcanization of Rubber
1844 1450 Natural or India rubber, as it was then known, was of limited usefulness to industry. Rubber products melted in hot weather, froze and cracked in cold, and adhered to virtually everything until the day in the mid-19th century when inventor Charles Goodyear accidentally dropped some rubber mixed with sulfur on a hot stove. 
1454 Goodyear's discovery of what came to be known as vulcanization strengthened rubber so it could be applied to a vast variety of industrial uses, including, eventually, automobile tires. 
1458 Goodyear was born in New Haven, Connecticut. He entered the hardware business with his father but the venture failed in 1830. Thereafter he turned his talents to the commercial improvement of India rubber, which, until his time, was not used much in industry because of the adhesiveness of the surface and because of its inability to withstand temperature extremes. After numerous experiments, in 1836 Goodyear developed a nitric acid treatment which partially remedied these defects. The famous vulcanizing process, patented in 1844, was to revolutionized the rubber industry, but Goodyear was unable to profit financially from his discovery. His numerous patents were constantly infringed, and although he was able to establish his rights legally, he died a poor man.
1920 1460 Gordon Gould  Born Jul 17 1920  Optically Pumped Laser Amplifiers; Light Amplifiers Employing Collisions to Produce a Population Inversion Optics Laser
1957 1470 Gordon Gould coined the word laser and patented optically pumped and discharge excited laser amplifiers now used in most industrial, commercial, and medical applications of lasers. 
1474 Gould and his assignee, Patlex Corporation, now hold the basic patents covering optically pumped and discharge excited laser amplifiers. These lasers are used in 80 percent of the industrial, commercial, and medical applications of lasers. Gould also holds patents on laser uses and fiber optic communications. 
  1478 Born in New York City, Gould idolized Edison, and his ambition from childhood on was to be an inventor. After his undergraduate years at Union College, majoring in physics with an emphasis on optics, he went on to Yale University for graduate work in spectroscopy. He received an M.S. in physics in 1943. During the rest of World War II he worked at the Manhattan Project on the separation of uranium isotopes to generate nuclear power. Following the war he continued graduate studies in physics at Columbia University. His studies in optical spectroscopy combined with microwave spectroscopy provided him the necessary background for germinating his original concepts of laser technology. Gould has said that his first ideas for the laser 'came in a flash' one night in 1957. He wrote these down in a notebook entitled 'Some rough calculations on the feasibility of a LASER: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation,' the first use of this acronym for the now familiar name. However, because he misunderstood an attorney's advice, he didn't file for a patent until 1959, after other laser researchers had already filed. Since Gould's original patent application contained a number of different inventions it was put through a series of five separate interferences by the Patent Office. Thus, it was not until 20 years later, in 1977, that the first of Gould's basic laser patents was issued.
1919 1480 Wilson Greatbatch  Born Sep 6 1919  Medical Cardiac Pacemaker Med Implantable Pacemaker
1960 1490 Wilson Greatbatch invented the cardiac pacemaker, an innovation selected in 1983 by the National Society of Professional Engineers as one of the two major engineering contributions to society during the previous 50 years. Greatbatch has established a series of companies to manufacture or license his inventions, including Greatbatch Enterprises, which produces most of the world's pacemaker batteries. 
1494 His original pacemaker patent resulted in the first implantable cardiac pacemaker, which has led to heart patient survival rates comparable to that of a healthy population of similar age. 
1498 Born in Buffalo, New York, Greatbatch received his preliminary education at public schools in West Seneca, New York. In 1936 he entered military service and served in the Atlantic and Pacific theaters during World War II. He was honorably discharged with the rating of aviation chief radioman in 1945. He attended Cornell University and graduated with a B.E.E. in electrical engineering in 1950. Greatbatch received a master's from the State University of New York at Buffalo in 1957 and was awarded honorary doctor's degrees from Houghton College in 1970 and State University of New York at Buffalo in 1984. Although trained as an electrical engineer, Greatbatch has primarily studied interdisciplinary areas combining engineering with medical electronics, agricultural genetics, the electrochemistry of pacemaker batteries, and the electrochemical polarization of physiological electrodes.
1918 1499 Leonard Michael Greene  Born Jun 8 1918  Stall Warning Device for Airplanes Tool Aircraft Stall Warning Device
1947 1509 Leonard Michael Greene has patented dozens of inventions in aviation technology, including the device that warns pilots when a deadly aerodynamic stall is imminent. 
1513 At the time Greene invented the stall-warning device, more than half of all aviation deaths were caused by the stall/spin. A Saturday Evening Post article (Oct. 25, 1947) said of Greene's innovation, 'It may be the greatest life saver since invention of the parachute.' 
1517 Born in New York City, Greene received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from City University of New York. In 1977 he was awarded an honorary doctorate by Pace University. During World War II, Greene joined the Grumman Aircraft Corporation as an aerodynamicist and engineering test pilot. Witness to an aircraft accident caused by stall, he realized the pilot could not tell when the angle of airflow over the wing had become excessive. The stall-warning device Greene then invented brought him his first of more than 100 patents to date, 60 of which cover aviation technology. To build his invention, Greene established the Safe Flight Instrument Corporation in White Plains, New York, in 1946. Other Greene inventions added to the product line included a wind-shear warning system that warns a pilot if an aircraft enters a dangerous microburst and provides escape guidance. Today the firm supplies unique air safety and performance technology to virtually every major air carrier, the U.S. Armed Forces, and to aircraft manufacturers worldwide. Since 1974, Greene has also been president of the Institute for Socioeconomic Studies in White Plains, New York. He has written a book entitled Free Enterprise Without Poverty, and articles on socioeconomics.
1863 1519 Charles Martin Hall  Born Dec 6 1863 - Died Dec 27 1914  Manufacture of Aluminum Ind Aluminum
1886 1529 Charles Martin Hall discovered the electrolytic method of producing aluminum cheaply, bringing the metal into wide commercial use. As a young chemist experimenting in a woodshed, Charles Hall invented a method for extracting pure aluminum from its ore. 
1533 Understanding aluminum's potential, Hall founded an industry that contributed to many others, particularly the manufacture of aircraft and automobiles. 
1535 By 1914, Hall's process had brought the cost of aluminum down to 18 cents a pound. Aluminum, once a precious metal used for fine jewelry, is now inexpensive enough for everyday packaging. 
1539 Born in Thompson, Ohio, Hall was a student at Oberlin (Ohio) College when he became interested in producing aluminum inexpensively. He continued to use the college laboratory after his graduation in 1885 and discovered his method eight months later. After several unsuccessful attempts to interest financial backers, he obtained the support of Alfred E. Hunt and a few of his friends. Together they formed the Pittsburgh Reduction Company (later the Aluminum Company of America). In 1890 Hall became company vice president. Hall became a generous benefactor of his alma mater, bequeathing Oberlin more than $5 million.
1919 1540 Robert N. Hall  Born Dec 25 1919  Asymmetrically Conductive Device and Method of Making the Same Elec Magnetron
1962 1550 Robert Hall invented the version of the magnetron that operates most microwave ovens, the semiconductor laser found in compact disk players, and power rectifiers that greatly improved power transmission efficiency. 
1554 His basic rectifier structure, with silicon replacing the germanium, is used today for AC-to-DC power conversion in electric locomotives and high-voltage DC electrical transmission. In 1962 Hall invented the semiconductor injection laser, a device now used in all compact disk players and laser printers, and most optical fiber communications systems. 
1558 Born in New Haven, Connecticut, Hall earned a B.S. in Physics at CalTech in 1942 and a Ph.D. in physics at CalTech in 1948. He then returned to the General Electric Research and Development Center in Schenectady, New York, where he had worked during WorldWar II on continuous wave magnetrons to jam enemy radar. These were later incorporated into microwave ovens. After the war Hall worked first on transistors, succeeding in making ingots of never-before-available intrinsic germanium from which devices could be fabricated. A 'chance observation' while measuring the electrical properties of one of these ingots led him to his discovery of alloyed p-n junctions, the fundamental elements of power rectifiers and some transistors. During the 1970s energy crisis Hall worked on photovoltaics and solar cells.
1908 1560 William Edward Hanford  Born Dec 9 1908 - Died Jan 27 1996  Process for Making Polymeric Products and for Modifying Polymeric Products Chem Polyurethane
1942 1570 William Edward Hanford and Donald Fletcher Holmes invented the process for making the multipurpose material polyurethane.They teamed up at E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, receiving their polyurethane patent in 1942. The process they developed reacts polyols and related hydroxy compounds with di-isocyanates. This method is the basis today for the manufacture of all polyurethanes. 
1574 Flexible polyurethane foam is used as an upholstery material, and the rigid foam is commonly used as a heat-insulating material in homes, offices, and refrigerators. Polyurethane is also used in life-saving artificial hearts, safety padding in modern automobiles, and in carpeting. 
1578 Born in Bristol, Pennsylvania, Hanford received his B.S. from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in 1930. Born in Woodbury, New Jersey, Holmes received his B.S. in Organic Chemistry from Amherst College in 1931. Both received master's and doctorates from the University of Illinois. Holmes remained with Du Pont, working in the textile divisions until just before his death on October 13, 1980. Hanford left Du Pont in 1942 to join GAF Corporation. In 1946 he joined M.W. Kellogg, where he became director of research and served on the board of directors. In 1957 he became research and development vice president at Olin Industries. He and his son organized Water-Sure Inc. in 1968 specializing in equipment for sanitizing water supplies in Third World countries. Hanford died January 27, 1996. 
1885 1579 Elizabeth Lee Hazen  Born Aug 24 1885 - Died Jun 24 1975  Nystatin and Method of Producing It Med Nystatin (Antifungal / Antibiotic)
1954 1589 The world's first useful antifungal antibiotic, nystatin, was developed through a long-distance scientific collaboration of Elizabeth Lee Hazen in New York City and Rachel Fuller Brown in Albany.
1591 Working as researchers for the New York State Department of Health, Elizabeth Lee Hazen in New York City and Rachel Fuller Brown in Albany shared tests and samples through the U.S. mail. To Hazen's single-minded pursuit of an antifungal antibiotic, Brown added the skills needed to identify, characterize, and purify the various substances produced by culturing bacteria found in hundreds of soil samples.
1593 The antibiotic they developed, named 'nystatin' for the New York State Department of Health, was first introduced in practical form in 1954 following Food and Drug Administration approval. 
1597 Not only did it cure many disfiguring and disabling fungal infections of the skin, mouth, throat, and intestinal tract, but it could be combined with antibacterial drugs to balance their effects.
1599 Uses for nystatin have been as varied as treating Dutch elm disease to rescuing water-damaged works of art from molds. 
1603 Brown and Hazen donated all nystatin royalties-more than $13 million by the time the patent expired-to academic science through the nonprofit Research Corporation.
1605 Born in rural Mississippi, Hazen was orphaned at the age of three and raised by relatives. She earned a B.S. at the Mississippi State College for Women then taught school and served as an Army diagnostic laboratory technician during World War I. After the war she won an advanced degree in bacteriology from Columbia University, becoming one of its first women doctoral candidates. 
1913 1606 William R. Hewlett  Born May 20 1913 - Died Jan 12 2001  Variable Frequency Oscillation Generator Telcom Audio Signals
1938 1616 Cofounder of the electronics giant Hewlett-Packard, William R. Hewlett invented the audio oscillator, the first practical method of generating audio signals needed in communications, geophysics, medicine, and defense work. 
1620 Until Hewlett's invention, scientists and researchers had no simple and accurate source for low-frequency signals essential to their work. One of Hewlett-Packard's first customers was Walt Disney Studios, which ordered eight of the Model 200B oscillators to use in producing the soundtrack for the film 'Fantasia.' 
1624 Hewlett was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan. His father was a professor of medicine at the University of Michigan and, later, at Stanford University. The younger Hewlett attended Stanford, receiving a B.A. in 1934 and an electrical engineering degree in 1939; his master's degree was awarded by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1936. Hewlett met partner Dave Packard while both were in undergraduate school at Stanford. While in graduate school Hewlett developed the design for the product that later launched the Hewlett-Packard company-the model HP200A audio oscillator. Hewlett served as an Army officer during World War II and was named vice-president of the newly incorporated Hewlett-Packard upon his return to civilian life. He served as president of H-P from 1964 to 1977 and as chief executive officer from 1969 to 1978. He is now director emeritus of the board of directors. In 1989 an old garage in Palo Alto, the first home of Hewlett-Packard, became a California historical landmark. The state dedicated it as the birthplace of Silicon Valley. 
1902 1626 Rene Alphonse Higonnet  Born Apr 5 1902 - Died Oct 13 1983  Photo Composing Machine Photo Photo Composing Machine
1953 1636 Louis Marius Moyroud and Rene Alphonse Higonnet developed the first practical phototypesetting machine. Born in Moirans, Isere, France, Moyroud attended engineering school from 1929 to 1936 and graduated as an engineer from Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Metiers of Cluny, France. He served in the military as a second lieutenant from 1936 to 1938 and as a first lieutenant in 1939 and 1940. He joined the LMT Laboratories, a subsidiary in Paris of ITT, in 1941 and left in 1946 to spend all of his time on photocomposition. Moyroud and Higonnet first demonstrated their first phototypesetting machine, the Lumitype-later known as the Photon-in September 1946 and introduced it to America in 1948. The Photon was further refined under the direction of the Graphic Arts Research Foundations. The first book to be composed by the Photon was printed in 1953, titled The Wonderful World of Insects. Composed without the use of metal type, it might someday rank in the historical importance of printing with the first book printed from moveable type, the Gutenberg Bible. In recent years, Moyroud has been instrumental in the development of the Euorcat Series of phototypesetting machines marketed in Europe by Bobst Graphics. Fellow communications engineer Higonnet was born in Valence, Drome, France. The son of a teacher, he was educated at the Lycée de Tournon and the Electrical Engineering School of Grenoble University. He was granted a scholarship by the International Institute of Education in New York in 1922, went to Carleton College in Minnesota for one year, and subsequently spent one term at the Harvard Engineering School. He was an engineer with the Materiel Telephonique, a French subsidiary of ITT, from 1924 to 1948. He then became a transmission engineer and worked on long distance cables in Paris-Strasbourg, London-Brussels, and Vienna-Budapest. He was also associated with the Patent and Information Department of ITT. 
1915 1638 James Hillier  Born Aug 22 1915  Electron Lens Correction Device Tool Electron Microscope
1648 Physicist James Hillier is recognized for his contributions to the development of the electron microscope. Hillier's work on the electron microscope began in college. He and a fellow graduate student built a model in 1937 that magnified 7,000 times. 
1652 A generation later more than 2,000 electron microscopes were in use in the laboratories of the world, some capable of magnifying 2 million times. 
1656 Born in Brantford in Ontario, Canada, he received his B.S. in 1937 and Ph.D. in physics in 1941 from the University of Toronto. Hillier was a research engineer at RCA Laboratories from 1940 to 1953, at which time he joined Melpar Inc. as research director. In 1954 he returned to RCA, where he became the general manager of RCA Laboratories in Princeton, New Jersey in 1957. When he retired in 1978, Hillier was executive vice president and senior scientist of RCA Labs. Hillier holds 40 patents. 
1937 1658 Marcian E. (Ted) Hoff  Born Oct 28 1937  Memory System for a Multi-Chip Digital Computer Comp CPU
1969 1668 In the late 1960s, many articles had discussed the possibility of a computer on a chip. However, all concluded that the integrated circuit technology was not yet ready. Ted Hoff was the first to recognize that Intel's new silicon-gated MOS technology might make a single-chip CPU possible if a sufficiently simple architecture could be developed. Hoff developed such an architecture with just over 2000 transistors.
1670 In 1969, the Japanese calculator manufacturer Busicom asked Intel to complete the design and manufacture of a new set of chips. Ted Hoff was assigned to work with Busicom's engineers. Hoff realized that the Busicom's 12-chip design -- separate chips for keyboard scanning, display control, printer control, and other functions -- could not meet the cost objectives for the project. He proposed an alternate architecture in which a single-chip general-purpose computer central processor (CPU) would be programmed to perform most of the calculator functions. Busicom accepted the Intel proposal.
1672 Further refinements in architecture and logic design were made by Stanley Mazor and Federico Faggin and the chip was brought to silicon reality by Faggin. The first working CPU was delivered to Busicom in February, 1971. This single chip had as much computing power as the first electronic computer, ENIAC (1946), which filled a room.
1674 Although there was an initial reluctance on the part of Intel marketing to undertake the support and sale of these products to general customers, Hoff, Mazor, and Faggin actively campaigned for their announcement to the industry and helped define a support strategy that the company could accept. Intel formally announced the "4004" CPU in November, 1971.
1676 The 4004 was designed and built under contract for Busicom -- they owned the rights to it. Intel acquired the rights by offering to return the $60,000 development cost and to produce the chip at a lower cost. As the basis for the modern computer revolution, maintaining rights on the 4004 technology appears to have been a good investment.
1678 Hoff, Mazor, and Faggin were involved in Intel's second and third generation CPUs, the 8008 and 8080. 
1682 One of the most important developments of the last half of the 20th century has been the microprocessor. It is found in virtually every automobile, medical device, and computer in the modern world. From its inception in 1969, the microprocessor industry has grown to hundreds of millions of units per year. 
1686 Dr. Marcian Edward "Ted" Hoff, Jr. was born October 28, 1937 in Rochester, New York. He received a BEE (1958) from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, NY. During the summers away from college he worked for General Railway Signal Company in Rochester where he made developments that produced his first two patents. He attended Stanford as a National Science Foundation Fellow and received a MS (1959) and Ph.D. (1962) in electrical engineering. He joined Intel in 1962. In 1980, he was named the first Intel Fellow, the highest technical position in the company. He spent a brief time as VP for Technology with Atari in the early 1980s and is currently VP and Chief Technical Officer with Teklicon, Inc. Other honors include the Stuart Ballantine Medal from the Franklin Institute. 
1919 1688 Paul Hogan  Born Aug 7 1919  Polymers and Production Thereof Chem HDPE and Polypropylene Plastics
1951 1698 Paul Hogan and fellow research chemist Robert Banks were working for Phillips Petroleum in 1951 when they invented crystalline polypropylene and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Together, the plastics were marketed under the brand name Marlex®, which has since made its way into every corner of American life. Banks and Hogan began working together in 1946. Low-density polyethylene already existed, but manufacturing it required extremely high pressures. While working on another project to improve yields of high-octane gasoline--the two chemists discovered crystalline polypropylene. They experimented further and found they were able to produce HDPE in a low pressure situation. Their discoveries launched a multi-billion dollar industry. 
1702 Today, over 55 billion pounds of HDPE are manufactured each year. Plastic products include gallon milk jugs, laundry baskets, indoor-outdoor carpeting, and artificial turf. 
1706 Hogan grew up in Lowes, Kentucky and received a degree in chemistry and physics from Murray State University. During World War II, he served as an instructor at a preflight school. He joined Phillips in 1944, working there until his 1985 retirement. His numerous awards include the Pioneer Chemist Award and the Society of Chemical Industry's Perkin Medal. Hogan holds 52 U.S. patents. 
1860 1708 Herman Hollerith  Born Feb 29 1860 - Died Nov 17 1929  Art of Compiling Statistics; Apparatus for Compiling Statistics Comp Punch Card Tabulator
1884 1718 Herman Hollerith invented and developed a punch-card tabulation machine system that revolutionized statistical computation.
1720 Hollerith began working on the tabulating system during his days at MIT, filing for the first patent in 1884. He developed a hand-fed 'press' that sensed the holes in punched cards; a wire would pass through the holes into a cup of mercury beneath the card closing the electrical circuit. This process triggered mechanical counters and sorter bins and tabulated the appropriate data.
1722 Hollerith's system-including punch, tabulator, and sorter-allowed the official 1890 population count to be tallied in six months, and in another two years all the census data was completed and defined; the cost was $5 million below the forecasts and saved more than two years' time.
1724 His later machines mechanized the card-feeding process, added numbers, and sorted cards, in addition to merely counting data.
1726 In 1896 Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company, forerunner of Computer Tabulating Recording Company (CTR). He served as a consulting engineer with CTR until retiring in 1921.
1728 In 1924 CTR changed its name to IBM - the International Business Machines Corporation. 
1732 Herman Hollerith invented and developed a punch-card tabulation machine system that revolutionized statistical computation. 
1736 Born in Buffalo, New York, the son of German immigrants, Hollerith enrolled in the City College of New York at age 15 and graduated from the Columbia School of Mines with distinction at the age of 19.
1738 His first job was with the U.S. Census effort of 1880. Hollerith successively taught mechanical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and worked for the U.S. Patent Office. The young engineer developed an electrically actuated brake system for the railroads, but the Westinghouse steam-actuated brake prevailed. 
1910 1740 Donald Fletcher Holmes  Born Sep 29 1910 - Died Oct 13 1980  Process for Making Polymeric Products and for Modifying Polymeric Products Chem Polyurethane
1942 1750 William Edward Hanford and Donald Fletcher Holmes invented the process for making the multipurpose material polyurethane.
1752 Holmes teamed up with Edward Hanford at E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, receiving their polyurethane patent in 1942. The process they developed reacts polyols and related hydroxy compounds with di-isocyanates. This method is the basis today for the manufacture of all polyurethanes.
1754 They received their polyurethane patent in 1942. 
1758 This method is the basis today for the manufacture of all polyurethanes.
1760 Flexible polyurethane foam is used as an upholstery material, and the rigid foam is commonly used as a heat-insulating material in homes, offices, and refrigerators. Polyurethane is also used in life-saving artificial hearts, safety padding in modern automobiles, and in carpeting. 
1764 Born in Woodbury, New Jersey, Holmes received his B.S. in Organic Chemistry from Amherst College in 1931. He received a master's and doctorate from the University of Illinois. Holmes teamed up with Edward Hanford at E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, receiving their polyurethane patent in 1942. Holmes remained with Du Pont, working in the textile divisions until just before his death on October 13, 1980. 
1892 1767 Eugene Houdry  Born Apr 18 1892 - Died Jul 18 1962  Process for the Manufacture of Liquid Fuels Energy Catalytic Cracking
1939 1777 Eugene Houdry discovered a revolutionary method for cracking low-grade crude oil into high-test gasoline, developed a catalytic process for producing synthetic rubber in World War II, and invented the catalytic converter for cleaning automobile exhaust.
1779 After the war Houdry expanded on his work that had yielded a catalytic process for producing gasoline from coal and invented a method for catalytically cracking low-grade crude oil. 
1781 In 1930 Houdry moved to the United States, where Vacuum Oil and the Sun Oil Company provided significant financial backing for his work and his own Houdry Process Corporation. When World War II broke out in 1939 he returned briefly to his native country to help the French government adapt his catalytic cracking process to the production of high-octane aviation gasoline. 
1785 The process revolutionized the production of gasoline and enabled refining companies to produce twice as much high-quality fuel per barrel of oil than the previous distillation method. By 1942, 90 percent of the aviation fuel produced in France, Great Britain, and the United States was catalytically cracked. 
1789 Born in Domont, France, the son of a wealthy structural steel manufacturer, Houdry studied mechanical engineering at the Ecole des Arts et Metiers in Paris. He worked first in his father's business then left to serve in the French Army as a lieutenant in the tank corps in World War I, where he was seriously injured. Houdry contributed to the WWII effort by developing a single-step butane dehydrogenation process for producing synthetic rubber.
1791 After the war Houdry formed a new company called Oxy-Catalyst and turned his attention to reducing the health risks from increasing amount of automobile and industrial exhausts. His catalytic muffler, patented in 1962, greatly reduced the amount of carbon dioxide and unburned hydrocarbons. Today, the device is standard on all American cars.
1793 Houdry received more than 100 patents. 
1903 1796 J. Franklin Hyde  Born Mar 11 1903 - Died Oct 11 1999  Method of Making a Transparent Article of Silica Optics Transparent Silica
1943 1806 A periodic chart that Franklin Hyde once designed had the element silicon placed directly in the center - not surprising, since Hyde’s work with glass-related technology and his role in launching the silicone industry all derive from silicon.
1808 Silicone fluids resist decomposition from heat and water, so they are used often as lubricants, hydraulic fluids and water repellents. Hyde worked extensively on silicone rubbers, which are extremely resistant to aging, sunlight, moisture, temperature extremes and many chemicals. They are used often as caulks, gaskets, electrical insulators, O-rings and heat-resistant seals. 
1812 Hyde’s ultra-pure glass has many uses, including spacecraft windows, telescopes, and precision lenses for manufacturing equipment. It also provided the bases for the semiconductor and fiber optics industries.
1814 Hyde also discovered how to convert silicon-containing compounds into silicones. Now, almost all major industries rely on the silicone industry to supply a wide range of important materials. 
1818 After completing postdoctoral work at Harvard University in 1930, Hyde worked at Corning Glass, attempting to create a pure, stable glass that could be used in devices like telescopes. Working with liquid silicon tetrachloride, Hyde discovered how to process it into a fused silica glass – the first new way of making glass in more than 3,000 years.
1820 Hyde’s work led to the 1943 founding of Dow Corning Corporation, a joint venture between Corning Glass Works and The Dow Chemical Company formed specifically to produce silicone products. Midland, Michigan-based Dow Corning today has 26 manufacturing locations around the world. 
1899 1822 Percy Lavon Julian  Born Apr 11 1899 - Died Apr 19 1975  Preparation of Cortisone Med Cortisone
1935 1832 Percy Lavon Julian synthesized physostigmine for treatment of glaucoma and cortisone for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. 
1836 His synthesis of cortisone reduced the price of cortisone from hundreds of dollars per drop for natural cortisone to a few cents per gram. 
1840 Born in Montgomery, Alabama, the grandson of a former slave, Julian had limited schooling because Montgomery provided no public education for blacks after the eighth grade. He entered DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana, as a 'sub-freshman' and, though ill-prepared, graduated in 1920 as class valedictorian with Phi Beta Kappa honors.
1842 Advised against pursuing a graduate education because of his race, Julian went to Fisk University to teach chemistry. In 1923, with an Austin Fellowship in Chemistry, he earned a master's degree from Harvard University.
1844 After teaching at West Virginia State College and Howard University, Julian received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of Vienna in 1931. He returned to DePauw University, where his international reputation was established in 1935 by synthesizing physostigmine, a drug treatment for glaucoma, from the calabar bean.
1846 Despite scientific acclaim, DePauw University denied him a professorship because of his race. During the next 17 years, Julian was director of research at the Glidden Company, a paint and varnish manufacturer. He developed a commercial process for isolating and preparing soya bean protein, which could be used to coat and size paper, to create cold water paints, and to size textiles. During World War II Julian used soya protein to produce 'AeroFoam'-a substance that suffocates gasoline and oil fires. His other inventions included a fire-extinguishing foam for gasoline and oil fires.
1848 Julian went on to synthesize the female and male hormones, progesterone and testosterone, by extracting sterols from soybean oil. He was noted most for his synthesis of cortisone, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. 
1941 1851 Donald B. Keck  Born Jan 2 1941  Fused Silica Optical Waveguide; Method of Producing Optical Waveguide Fibers Optics Optical Fibers
1970 1861 Corning Glass researchers Robert Maurer, Donald Keck, and Peter Schultz made optical fiber, capable of carrying 65,000 times more information than conventional copper wire, a practical reality.
1863 In 1970 Maurer, Keck, and Schultz designed and produced the first optical fiber with optical losses low enough for wide use in telecommunications. Previously, the limiting factor was the amount of light lost during transmission. The key was restricting light loss to 20 decibels per kilometer (at least one percent of the light entering a fiber remains after traveling one kilometer). Scientists around the world had worked on the problem for years to no avail.
1865 Optical fiber is the foundation for the global, multimedia telecommunications network of tomorrow. More than 90 percent of the U.S. long-distance traffic is already carried over optical fiber; more than 25 million kilometers has been installed, virtually all of it using the original design of Maurer, Keck and Schultz.
1871 The discovery by the group at Corning was quickly recognized as a breakthrough, paving the way for the commercialization of optical fiber and literally creating a revolution in telecommunications. 
1875 Born in Lansing, Michigan, Keck received his B.S. in 1962, M.S. in 1964, and a Ph.D. in 1967, all from Michigan State University. He joined Corning as a research physicist in 1968; he currently is director of opto-electronic research
1876 1880 Charles Franklin Kettering  Born Aug 29 1876 - Died Nov 25 1958  Engine Starting Device; Engine Starting, Lighting and Ignition System Ind Automobile
1915 1890 Charles Franklin Kettering invented the first electrical ignition system and the self-starter for automobile engines and the first practical engine-driven generator. 
1898 Born in an Ohio farmhouse, Kettering graduated from Ohio State University in 1904 as an engineer then joined the National Cash Register Company, where he oversaw development of the electrically operated cash register, among other products.
1900 In 1909 he left NCR and, with businessman Edward A. Deeds, set up the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company or Delco, where he invented his most significant engine devices. Kettering's engine-driven generator, named the 'Delco,' provided electricity on millions of farms.
1902 In 1916 Kettering sold his company to General Motors. At G.M. he set up and directed a central research laboratory and stayed for 31 years, until his retirement in 1947. The lab developed the lightweight diesel engine that made the diesel locomotive possible, the refrigerant Freon, four-wheel brakes, safety glass, and many other items.
1904 Kettering was the holder of some 140 patents. Along with G.M. President Alfred Sloan, he established the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research. 
1923 1906 Jack S. Kilby  Born Nov 8 1923  Miniaturized Electronic Circuits Comp Integrated Circuit
1959 1916 In 1959 electrical engineer Jack S. Kilby invented the monolithic integrated circuit, which is still widely used in electronic systems. In 1958 he joined Texas Instruments Inc. in Dallas where he was responsible for integrated circuit development and applications. Within a year he had invented the monolithic integrated circuit. 
1920 Widely used in electronic systems. 
1924 Born in Jefferson City, Missouri, Kilby received a B.S.E.E. degree from the University of Illinois in 1947 and an M.S.E.E. from the University of Wisconsin in 1950.
1926 From 1947 to 1958 he was responsible for the design and development of thick film integrated circuits at the Centralab Division of Globe Union Inc. in Milwaukee. In 1970 Kilby began a leave of absence from the Texas Instruments company to work as an individual inventor. Much of his recent work has been directed toward the development of a novel solar energy system. 
1911 1928 Willem J. Kolff  Born Feb 14 1911  Soft Shell Mushroom Shaped Heart Med Artificial Heart
1948 1938 Medical researcher Willem J. Kolff invented the artificial kidney dialysis machine.
1940 The artificial kidney dialysis machine Kolff invented has been perfected through a series of improvements so that there are an estimated 55,000 people in the U.S. with end-stage renal disease that are being kept alive by this invention or a subsequent modification of it. 
1944 There are an estimated 55,000 people in the U.S. with end-stage renal disease that are being kept alive by this invention or a subsequent modification of it. 
1948 Born in the Netherlands, Kolff received his M.D. in Leiden in 1938 and a Ph.D. degree from the University of Groningen in Holland in 1946. He holds nine honorary doctorates. Since 1934 Kolff has held numerous medical research positions in the Netherlands and the United States. From 1950 to 1967 he was affiliated with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, ultimately as scientific director of the Artificial Organs Program. Since 1967 he has been professor of surgery and head of the Division of Artificial Organs at the School of Medicine of the University of Utah.
1950 Kolff never patented his original artificial kidney dialysis machine, but after coming to the United States he headed a team which invented and tested an artificial heart. 
1889 1952 William Kroll  Born Nov 24 1889 - Died Mar 30 1973  Method for Manufacturing Titanium and Alloys Thereof Ind Titanium
1932 1962 In 1932, Luxembourg native William Kroll invented a process to produce metallic titanium. He combined titanium tetrachloride with calcium to produce ductile titanium. By 1938, Kroll had produced 50 pounds of titanium using his process, later named the "Kroll Process". Titanium in its pure form had been discovered by William Gregor in 1791, but it was difficult to obtain from its natural state and, when heated, it yielded a useless substance. 
1966 Titanium is the fourth most abundant structural metal on Earth and today remains vital in the production of jet engines and piping systems. It is also used in artificial hips and knees and is a key ingredient in golf clubs, watches and marine equpment. 
1970 While researching the newly processed titanium, Kroll realized its strength and anti-corrosion potential. With the rise of Nazi power surrounding him, Kroll decided to take his metallurgic findings to the United States, ending up at the U.S. bureau of Mines. At the bureau, Kroll was able to apply the same process to zirconium. By 1945, Kroll had rolled out his first zirconium strip. By 1948, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission became interested in using zirconium for structural elements of reactors.
1972 Zirconium can be found in jet engines, radar equipment, surgical instruments and fiber optics. Zirconium's optimum nuclear and corrosion properties made it a key ingredient in the construction of the first atomic submarine reactor. 
1923 1974 Stephanie Louise Kwolek  Born Jul 31 1923  Optically Anisotropic Aromatic Polyamide Dopes and Oriented Fibers Therefrom Home Kevlar
1965 1984 Kwolek's earliest work pioneered low-temperature processes for the preparation of condensation polymers and resulted in hundreds of new polymers, including Kapton polyimide film, and Nomex aramid polymer and fiber.
1986 As she carried out experiments to make stronger and stiffer fibers, she discovered an amazing branch of polymer science-liquid crystalline polymers. 
1990 Thousands of police can attest to the value of Stephanie Kwolek's breakthrough research in para-aramid fibers. The fruits of her inventiveness can be found in mooring ropes, fiber-optic cables, aircraft parts, canoes, and-most important to police-in lightweight bullet-resistant vests. 
1994 Born in New Kensington, Pennsylvania, Kwolek received her B.S. in chemistry from the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1946. That same year she went to work as a chemist at the Buffalo, New York, site of E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company.
1996 'I really wanted to study medicine,' Kwolek recalled, 'but I didn't have enough money to enter medical school. I joined Du Pont as a temporary measure, but the work turned out to be so interesting that I stayed on.' The most famous product of her discovery was Kevlar, a polymer fiber five times stronger than the same weight of steel. The material of choice for bullet-resistant vests and many other applications generates hundreds of millions of dollars in sales worldwide each year.
1998 Kwolek moved to the Pioneering Research Laboratory at Du Pont's Experimental Station in Wilmington, Delaware, in 1950. She retired in 1986 as a research associate but continues to consult for Du Pont and serves on the committees of the National Research Council and the National Academy of Sciences.
2000 Her name appears on 17 patents issued between 1961 and 1986. 
1909 2002 Edwin Herbert Land  Born May 7 1909 - Died Mar 1 1991  Photographic Product Comprising a Rupturable Container Carrying a Photographic Processing Liquid Photo Photography
1965 2012 Physicist, manufacturing executive, and inventor Edwin Herbert Land developed the first modern polarizers for light, a sequence of subsequent polarizers, and theories and practices for applications of polarized light. 
2020 Born in Connecticut, Land was educated at Norwich Free Academy and Harvard University. During his lifetime he was awarded six honorary doctorates. Land spent nearly all of his life engaged in research and development of optical devices. During World War II he developed optical and other systems for military use and proposed the retinex theory for mechanism of color perception, in addition to creating cameras and films that gave instantaneous dry photographs in black and white and color. But he is best remembered for the instant-photo film and cameras made famous by the company he founded, Polaroid Corporation. 
1881 2023 Irving Langmuir  Born Jan 31 1881 - Died Aug 16 1957  Incandescent Electric Lamp Elec Electric Lamp
1912 2033 Irving Langmuir's work led to two major inventions: the high-vacuum electron tube and the gas-filled incandescent lamp. 
2041 Born in Brooklyn, New York, Langmuir was educated in the public schools of New York and Paris, France. He earned a B.S. from the Columbia University School of Mines and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Gottingen in Germany, where he studied under Nobel laureate Walther Nernst.
2043 His first professional position was as an instructor of chemistry at Stevens Institute in Hoboken, New Jersey, from 1906 to 1909. From there he moved to the General Electric Research Laboratory in Schenectady, New York. What began as a summer job blossomed into a career with the company that lasted the rest of his life.
2045 While at G.E., Langmuir received 63 patents and was awarded the 1932 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, as well as numerous other honors. His initial research at General Electric involved low-pressure chemical reactions and the study of the emission of electrons by hot filaments in a vacuum. This work led directly to the invention of the high-vacuum electron tube in 1912 and the gas-filled incandescent lamp in 1913.
2047 Langmuir was responsible for many basic scientific discoveries which played a fundamental role in the development of commercial electrical products as well as in military and general scientific areas. His contributions to atomic theory and the understanding of atomic structure threw light upon the meaning of isotopes. His experiments with oil films on water resulted in the development of two-dimensional or surface chemistry.
2049 In World War II, Langmuir was one of the key advisers in the national defense and wartime scientific research programs, contributing to the development of radar for use by the British and United States armed forces. 
1901 2052 Ernest Orlando Lawrence  Born Aug 8 1901 - Died Aug 27 1958  Method and Apparatus for the Acceleration of Ions Chem Cyclotron
1930 2062 Ernest Orlando Lawrence invented the cyclotron, a device that greatly increased the speed with which projectiles could be hurled at atomic nuclei. 
2066 Without it, and related instruments, most of the advancements in nuclear physics made in the last 50 years could not have occurred. 
2070 Born in Canton, South Dakota, Lawrence graduated from the University of South Dakota in 1922 then went to Yale University, where he obtained his Ph.D. in physics in 1925. In 1927 he joined the faculty of the University of California. Lawrence built his first cyclotron in 1930. Unlike other devices, which attempted to give charged particles one tremendous push, Lawrence's device moved protons in a widening spiral, imparting more energy to them with each spin, until they finally shot out of the instrument.
2072 In 1939 Lawrence was rewarded for his work with the Nobel Prize in physics. 
1902 2074 William P. Lear  Born Jun 26 1902 - Died May 14 1978  Radio Apparatus Telcom Car Radio
1967 2084 Though his name is most often associated with corporate jet airplanes, William Lear earlier made his mark in car radios and by inventing the eight-track tape player. 
2092 Born in Hannibal, Missouri, Lear attended public school in Chicago through the eighth grade. At age 16 he joined the Navy, where he learned radio electronics. Following World War I he took up flying.
2094 An early Lear design, a practical car radio, launched the Motorola Company. RCA purchased a radio amplifier design of Lear's, a universal unit usable in their entire line. Lear designed the eight-track player in the 1960s.
2096 Lear began designing navigational aids for aircraft In the 1930s and under the names Lear Corp. and LearAvia Corporation filled more than $100 million in defense orders during World War II. After the war, he developed a lightweight automatic pilot. In 1962 he sold his interest in Lear, Inc. to form Learjet, which became the leading supplier of corporate jets within five years.
2098 After Learjet he devoted his energies to development of an antipollution steam engine.
2100 In the 1970s, his aircraft designs included the Canadair Challenger and the Lear Fan, an airplane built entirely from composites. Lear died during development of the Lear Fan, and although there were a number of advance orders it was never put into production. 
1926 2102 Robert S. Ledley  Born Jun 28 1926  Diagnostic X-Ray System Med CAT Scan
1974 2112 Robert S. Ledley invented the whole-body CT (computerized tomographic) diagnostic X-ray scanner.
2114 The ACTA Scanner set the fundamental design for modern CT scanners, including the first use of the convolution method for CT-image reconstruction, the first high-resolution digital TV display for medical imaging, and the tilting gantry. 
2118 Ledley used ACTA to revolutionize diagnostic medicine. He was the first to do medical imaging and three-dimensional reconstructions and the first to use CT in radiation therapy planning for cancer patients and in the diagnosis of bone diseases. 
2122 Born in New York City, Ledley earned a D.D.S. from New York University in 1948 and an M.A. from Columbia University a year later. During the next 20 years he served in a variety of academic and research positions at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly National Bureau of Standards), Johns Hopkins University, and George Washington University, before becoming a professor of physiology and biophysics and of radiology at the Georgetown University Medical Center. With more than 20 patents to his name, Ledley is best known for developing the ACTA (Automatic Computerized Transverse Axial) diagnostic X-ray scanner, the first whole-body computerized tomography (CT) machine. In addition to the ACTA scanner, Ledley patented the image processor (originally called the Texture Analysis Computer or TEXAC). He wrote the first comprehensive textbook for engineers on digital computer engineering. He also developed the computational methods in Boolean algebra, used in digital circuit design. Ledley wrote the seminal paper for the field of Medical Informatics on computer use to aid in medical diagnosis.
2124 Ledley is editor-in-chief of four reviewed scientific journals and has been the president and research director of the National Biomedical Research Foundation since 1960. 
1927 2126 Theodore Harold Maiman  Born Jul 11 1927  Ruby Laser Systems Tool Laser
1960 2136 Physicist Theodore Harold Maiman invented the first operable laser.
2138 While employed at Hughes Research Laboratories as a section head in 1960, he developed, demonstrated, and patented a laser using a pink ruby medium, for which he gained worldwide recognition. 
2146 Born in Los Angeles, California, Maiman in his teens earned college money by repairing electrical appliances and radios. He attended the University of Colorado and received a B.S. in engineering physics in 1949 then went on to do graduate work at Stanford University, where he received an M.S. in electrical engineering in 1951 and a Ph.D. in physics in 1955. In 1962 Maiman founded his own company, Korad Corporation, devoted to the research, development, and manufacture of lasers. He formed Maiman Associates in 1968 after selling Korad to Union Carbide Corporation. He joined TRW in 1976 and has been responsible for directing the management of technology and the establishment of new high-technology ventures. He is also a director of Control Laser Corporation and a member of the Advisory Board of Industrial Research Magazine. 
1874 2148 Guglielmo Marconi  Born Apr 25 1874 - Died Jul 20 1937  Transmitting Electrical Signals Telcom Radio
1895 2158 In 1895 Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi built the equipment and transmitted electrical signals through the air from one end of his house to the other, and then from the house to the garden. These experiments were, in effect, the dawn of practical wireless telegraphy or radio.
2160 Following the successes of his experiments at home, Marconi became obsessed with the idea of sending messages across the Atlantic. He built a transmitter, 100 times more powerful than any previous station, at Poldhu, on the southwest tip of England, and in November 1901 installed a receiving station at St. John's Newfoundland.
2162 On December 12, 1901, he received signals from across the ocean. News of this achievement spread around the world, and he was acclaimed by outstanding scientists, including Thomas A. Edison. 
2170 Marconi was born in Bologna, Italy.His father was Italian, his mother, Irish. He was educated first in Bologna and later in Florence. Then he went to the technical school in Leghorn, where he studied physics.
2172 Marconi received many honors including the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909. He was sent as a delegate to the Peace Conference in Paris in 1919, in which capacity he signed the peace treaties with Austria and Bulgaria. 
1910 2175 Homer Z. Martin  Born Nov 20 1910 - Died Sep 1 1993  Method of and Apparatus For Contacting Solids And Gases Chem Catalytic Cracking
1939 2185 Homer Martin was with Exxon Research & Engineering Co. (ER&E) when the company was looking for a way to increase the yield of high-octane gasoline from crude oil. Martin and three of his colleagues devised fluid catalytic cracking, considered one of the most important chemical engineering achievements of the 20th century.
2187 During today’s fluid cat cracking, a boxcar load of catalyst is mixed with a stream of oil vapor every minute. This mixture, behaving like a fluid, that moves continuously through the system as cracking reactions take place. Fluid cat cracking currently takes place in over 370 units around the world, producing almost one half billion gallons of gasoline daily. Its technology continues to evolve as cleaner high-performance fuels are explored. 
2191 Considered essential to the refinery, fluid cat cracking produces gasoline as well as heating oil, fuel oil, propane, butane, and chemical feedstocks that are instrumental in producing other products such as plastics, synthetic rubbers and fabrics, and cosmestics. 
2195 Martin was born in Chicago, Illinois. He received his B.S. in chemical engineering from Armour Institute Tech and his M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Michigan. After joining ER&E in 1937, he became one of its most prolific inventors, with 82 patents upon his retirement in 1973. 
1924 2197 Robert D. Maurer  Born Jul 20 1924  Fused Silica Optical Waveguide; Method of Producing Optical Waveguide Fibers Optics Optical Fibers
1970 2207 Corning Glass researchers Robert Maurer, Donald Keck, and Peter Schultz made optical fiber, capable of carrying 65,000 times more information than conventional copper wire, a practical reality.
2209 In 1970 Maurer, Keck, and Schultz designed and produced the first optical fiber with optical losses low enough for wide use in telecommunications. Previously, the limiting factor was the amount of light lost during transmission. The key was restricting light loss to 20 decibels per kilometer (at least one percent of the light entering a fiber remains after traveling one kilometer). Scientists around the world had worked on the problem for years to no avail.
2211 Optical fiber is the foundation for the global, multimedia telecommunications network of tomorrow. More than 90 percent of the U.S. long-distance traffic is already carried over optical fiber; more than 25 million kilometers has been installed, virtually all of it using the original design of Maurer, Keck and Schultz. 
2215 The discovery by the group at Corning was quickly recognized as a breakthrough, paving the way for the commercialization of optical fiber and literally creating a revolution in telecommunications. 
2219 Maurer was born in St. Louis. He earned a B.S. from the University of Arkansas in 1948 and a Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1951. He joined the Corning Glass Works in 1952 and retired in 1989 as a research fellow. 
1941 2221 Stanley Mazor  Born Oct 22 1941  Memory System for a Multi-Chip Digital Computer Comp CPU
1971 2231 In the late 1960s, many articles had discussed the possibility of a computer on a chip. However, all concluded that the integrated circuit technology was not yet ready. Ted Hoff was the first to recognize that Intel's new silicon-gated MOS technology might make a single-chip CPU possible if a sufficiently simple architecture could be developed. Hoff developed such an architecture with just over 2000 transistors.
2233 In 1969, the Japanese calculator manufacturer Busicom asked Intel to complete the design and manufacture of a new set of chips. Ted Hoff was assigned to work with Busicom's engineers. Hoff realized that the Busicom's 12-chip design -- separate chips for keyboard scanning, display control, printer control, and other functions -- could not meet the cost objectives for the project. He proposed an alternate architecture in which a single-chip general-purpose computer central processor (CPU) would be programmed to perform most of the calculator functions. Busicom accepted the Intel proposal.
2235 Further refinements in architecture and logic design were made by Stanley Mazor and Federico Faggin and the chip was brought to silicon reality by Faggin. The first working CPU was delivered to Busicom in February, 1971. This single chip had as much computing power as the first electronic computer, ENIAC (1946), which filled a room.
2237 Although there was an initial reluctance on the part of Intel marketing to undertake the support and sale of these products to general customers, Hoff, Mazor, and Faggin actively campaigned for their announcement to the industry and helped define a support strategy that the company could accept. Intel formally announced the "4004" CPU in November, 1971.
2239 The 4004 was designed and built under contract for Busicom -- they owned the rights to it. Intel acquired the rights by offering to return the $60,000 development cost and to produce the chip at a lower cost. As the basis for the moderncomputer revolution, maintaining rights on the 4004 technology appears to have been a good investment.
2241 Hoff, Mazor, and Faggin were involved in Intel's second and third generation CPUs, the 8008 and 8080. 
2245 One of the most important developments of the last half of the 20th century has been the microprocessor. It is found in virtually every automobile, medical device, and computer in the modern world. From its inception in 1969, the microprocessor industry has grown to hundreds of millions of units per year. 
2249 Mr. Stanley Mazor was born in Chicago on October 22, 1941. He studied mathematics and programming at San Francisco State University. He joined Fairchild Semiconductor in 1964 as a programmer and then a computer designer in the Digital Research Department where he shares patents on the Symbol computer. In 1969, he joined Intel. In 1977, he began his teaching career in Intel's Technical Training group, and later taught classes at Stanford, University of Santa Clara, KTH in Stockholm and Stellenbosch, S.A. In 1984 he was at Silicon Compiler Systems. He co-authored a book on chip design language while at Synopsys 1988-1994. He was invited to present "The History of the Microcomputer" at the 1995 IEEE Proceedings. He is currently the Training Director at BEA Systems. 
1809 2251 Cyrus Hall McCormick  Born Feb 15 1809 - Died May 13 1884  Improvement in Machines for Reaping Small Grain Ag Mechanical Reaper
1834 2261 Cyrus Hall McCormick invented the mechanical reaper, which combined all the steps that earlier harvesting machines had performed separately. 
2263 Patenting his invention in 1834, after Obed Hussey had announced (1833) the construction of a reaper of his own, McCormick started to manufacture the machine on the family estate in 1837. Six years later he began to license its manufacture in other parts of the country. In 1847 he set up a factory in Chicago, founding what eventually became one of the greatest industrial establishments in the United States. 
2267 His time-saving invention allowed farmers to more than double their crop size and spurred innovations in farm machinery. 
2271 Born in Rockbridge County, Virginia, Cyrus McCormick derived his interest in invention from his father, a Virginia landowner who patented several improved farming implements and worked without success for many years to perfect a mechanical reaper. In July 1831 McCormick succeeded where his father had failed, producing a model reaper with all the essential components of later commercial machines. An astute businessman, McCormick increased his sales with door-to-door canvassing and written guarantees for his ready-to-assemble machinery. McCormick amassed a large fortune and invested widely in later years in railroad and mining enterprises. 
1844 2273 Elijah McCoy  Born May 2 1844 - Died Oct 10 1929  Improvement in Lubricators for Steam-Engines Ind Automatic Engine Lubricator
1872 2283 Elijah McCoy received his first patent for an automatic lubricating device in 1872. Previously, engines had to be stopped before necessary lubrication could be applied. McCoy's invention allowed engines to be lubricated while they ran, saving precious time and money. 
2291 McCoy's parents were slaves who escaped from Kentucky to Canada. McCoy was born in Canada, later moving with his family to Ypsilanti, Michigan. When he was fifteen, his parents sent him to school in Scotland. There, he studied mechanical engineering, a field that had interested him from the time he was young.Returning home, McCoy was unable to find work as a mechanical engineer, so he went to work for the Michigan Central Railroad as a fireman. His duties included lubricating engine parts. Engines needed frequent lubrication, and each time, the trains had to be stopped and started, an inefficient process. McCoy was convinced there was a better way and invented his automatic lubricator.
2293 McCoy continued to create improvements on his device, and soon, long distance locomotives, transatlantic ships, and factory machines were using his lubricating invention. His reputation spread, and users of heavy equipment were wary of buying cheap substitutes. As a result, they often asked for "the real  
1854 2296 Ottmar Mergenthaler  Born May 10 1854 - Died Oct 28 1899  Machine for Producing Printing Bars Ind Linotype
1886 2306 Ottmar Mergenthaler's invention of the linotype composing machine in 1886 is regarded as the greatest advance in printing since the development of moveable type 400 years earlier.
2308 Mergenthaler's machine enabled one operator to be machinist, type-setter, justifier, typefounder, and type-distributor.
2310 Since the machine was first used in 1886 by the New York Tribune, great improvements on its design have been made. Probably more than 1,500 separate patents have been taken out in connection with it. 
2314 Regarded as the greatest advance in printing since the development of moveable type 400 years earlier. 
2318 Born in Germany, Mergenthaler was trained as a watch and clockmaker. He arrived in Baltimore in 1872 and took a job in a machine shop, eventually working his way up into a partnership.
2320 At the age of 32 he designed and built his first linotype machine. With it, the two operations of setting and casting type in leaden lines were performed simply by touching the keys of a board similar to the keyboard of a typewriter. 
1923 2322 Irving Millman  Born May 23 1923  Vaccine Against Viral Hepatitis and Process; Process of Viral Diagnosis and Reagent Med Vaccine for Hepatitis B
1971 2332 In 1963, Baruch Blumberg discovered an antigen that detected the presence of hepatitis B in blood samples. Hepatitis B is a potentially fatal disease often transmitted through blood transfusions. This hepatitis antigen, 'the Australia Antigen,' was found frequently in the blood serum of viral hepatitis sufferers. The antigen was named for an aborigine blood sample that reacted with an antibody in the serum of an American hemophilia patient. Working with Blumberg, microbiologist Irving Millman developed a test that identified hepatitis B in blood samples. The blood test screened out carriers of this infectious disease, and after blood banks began using the test in 1971, hepatitis B after blood transfusions decreased by 25 percent. The test also became the first method for screening blood donations for the hepatitis B virus.
2334 Together, Blumberg and Millman developed a vaccine against the virus. 
2338 This vaccine protects people exposed to hepatitis B from infection and has been a dministered to millions, particularly in Asia and Africa. Since hepatitis B is an unknown factor associated with the development of liver cancer, the vaccine was the first against a major form of cancer. 
2342 Irving Millman was born in New York City. He received a B.S. in 1948 from City College in New York, an M.S. in 1951 from the University of Kentucky, and a Ph.D. in 1954 from the Northwestern University Medical School, where he was appointed assistant professor. He joined Fox in 1967 after having previously held positions with Armour & Company, the Public Health Research Institute of the City of New York Inc., and the Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research.
2344 He is an adjunct professor of biology at Hahnemann University in Philadelphia. He has been a member of the New York Academy of Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Society of Microbiology and is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology. 
1950 2346 Dennis Moeller  Born Apr 28 1950  Microcomputer System with Bus Control Means for Peripheral Processing Devices Comp Peripherals
1980 2356 Dennis Moeller and Mark Dean together created a microcomputer system with bus control means for peripheral processing devices. The bus serves as the backbone of the computer by connecting its brain--the central processing unit--with its limbs, the keyboard, monitor, printer, as well as any other devices. Today, this technology is called the ----. 
2360 The bus serves as the backbone of the computer by connecting its brain--the central processing unit--with its limbs, the keyboard, monitor, printer, as well as any other devices. 
2364 Born in St. Louis, Missouri, Moeller received his BS and his MS in Electrical Engineering at the University of Missouri in Columbia. In 1974 he began working for IBM on semi-conductor manufacturing. Four years later, he started working on the Series 1 mini-computer printer family, and from 1982 through 1984, he worked on the PCAT project team. Since 1984 he has worked on numerous PC-related research and development projects.
2366 Currently he is a senior technical staff member in the IBM Consumer Division which produces the Aptiva line of home computers. He holds 25 patents in PC system designs and PC printers. 
1939 2368 Bryan B. Molloy  Born Mar 30 1939  Aryloxyphenylpropylamines Med Prozac
1986 2378 Bryan Molloy and Klaus Schmiegel co-invented a class of aryloxyphenylpropylamines, which includes the active ingredient in Prozac®, the most widely used antidepressant, which has been prescribed for over 35 million people. Introduced by Eli Lilly & Co. in the U.S. in 1988, Prozac represented a new class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. 
2380 The search by Molloy and the chemistry team at Eli Lilly for an effective antidepressant led them to synthesize many new compounds. After many failures, they tested a group of compounds called aryloxyphenylpropylamines. One of these compounds, fluoxetine hydrochloride, was found to be highly selective, affecting only the neurotransmitter serotonin. Years of development and testing finally led to approval of fluoxetine hydrochloride for marketing. 
2384 Prozac treats depression with fewer side effects than previous antidepressants and has been prescribed for over 35 million people. 
2388 Molloy was born and grew up in Scotland. After he graduated with his B.S. and Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of St. Andrews, Molloy did postdoctoral work in the U.S. and England before joining Eli Lilly in 1966 as a senior organic chemist. Molloy has published over 100 papers and acquired over 30 patents while at Eli Lilly. He became a Lilly Research Fellow in 1983. 
1791 2390 Samuel F. B. Morse  Born Apr 27 1791 - Died Apr 2 1872  Improvement in the Mode of Communicating Information by Signals by the Application of Electro-Magnetism Telcom Telegraph
1844 2400 Morse developed 'lightning wires' and 'Morse code,' an electronic alphabet that could carry messages. The patent was applied for in 1840. A line was constructed between Baltimore and Washington and the first message, sent on May 24,1844, was 'What hath God wrought!' 
2404 In 1861 the two coasts of the United States were linked by telegraph. 
2408 Samuel F. B. Morse, once a portrait painter, turned to inventing to make his fortune. Morse had little training in electricity but realized that pulses of electrical current could convey information over wires.
2410 Born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, the eldest child of the Reverend Jedidiah Morse and his wife, Elizabeth Ann Breese, Samuel Morse attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, and entered Yale College in 1805, graduating in 1810.
2412 Morse took out three patents on pumps in 1817 with his brother, Sidney Edwards Morse. Samuel Morse's interest in telegraphy began in 1832, and the elements of a relay system were worked out late in 1835. The equipment was gradually improved and was demonstrated in 1837. To support himself later in life Morse was largely dependent on dividends from telegraph companies.In 1858 several European countries combined to pay a gratuity of 400,000 francs as compensation for their use of his system. 
1899 2414 Andrew J. Moyer  Born Nov 30 1899 - Died Feb 17 1959  Method for Production of Penicillin Med Penicillin
1944 2424 Andrew J. Moyer's discoveries provided the foundation for the industrial production of penicillin.
2426 The potential of using penicillin to treat wounded soldiers was immediately recognized in World War II. However the concept of antibiotics was new, and a practical method for large-scale production was not available. Treatments required from 1-2 million Oxford units of the substance. The urgency of finding a method for mass-producing penicillin led to international cooperation.
2428 In the United States, the task was assigned to Moyer, who found that by culturing the Penicillium mold in a culture broth comprising corn steep liquor and lactose, penicillin yields could be increased many fold. This was the first known use of corn steep liquor for growing microorganisms.
2430 Moyer also discovered that with this improved medium, the fermentation could be conducted with continuous shaking, thereby further enhancing the yields and production rate. 
2434 These discoveries led to industrial penicillin production, which saved thousands of lives during the war.
2436 Moyer's work also provided a model for the development of all other antibiotic fermentations. Corn steep liquor is still used in the commercial fermentation processes for making penicillin and many other antibiotics. Moyer contributed to 10 U.S. patents. 
2441 Born in Star City, Indiana, Moyer received his A.B. degree from Wabash College in 1922, studied at the University of Wisconsin from 1922 to 1923, and received a M.S. from North Dakota Agricultural College in 1925. In 1929 he was awarded his Ph.D. in plant pathology from the University of Maryland.
2443 Moyer was employed as a mycologist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, from 1929 until 1940 then worked as a microbiologist at the USDA Northern Regional Research Laboratory in Peoria, Illinois, until his retirement in 1957. 
1914 2446 Louis Marius Moyroud  Born Feb 16 1914  Photo Composing Machine Photo Photo Composing Machine
1953 2456 Louis Marius Moyroud and Rene Alphonse Higonnet developed the first practical phototypesetting machine.
2458 Moyroud and Higonnet first demonstrated their first phototypesetting machine, the Lumitype-later known as the Photon-in September 1946 and introduced it to America in 1948. The Photon was further refined under the direction of the Graphic Arts Research Foundations.
2460 The first book to be composed by the Photon was printed in 1953, titled The Wonderful World of Insects. 
2464 Composed without the use of metal type, it might someday rank in the historical importance of printing with the first book printed from moveable type, the Gutenberg Bible. 
2468 Born in Moirans, Isere, France, Moyroud attended engineering school from 1929 to 1936 and graduated as an engineer from Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Metiers of Cluny, France. He served in the military as a second lieutenant from 1936 to 1938 and as a first lieutenant in 1939 and 1940. He joined the LMT Laboratories, a subsidiary in Paris of ITT, in 1941 and left in 1946 to spend all of his time on photocomposition. In recent years, Moyroud has been instrumental in the development of the Euorcat Series of phototypesetting machines marketed in Europe by Bobst Graphics. 
1944 2470 Kary Mullis  Born Dec 28 1944  Process for Amplifying Nucleic Acid Sequences Chem Polymerase Chain Reacton
1989 2480 The polymerase chain reaction, which was devised by Kary Mullis, has revolutionized DNA technology. PCR amplifies specific DNA sequences from very small amounts of complex genetic material. The amplification produces an almost unlimited number of highly purified DNA molecules suitable for analysis or manipulation. PCR has allowed screening for genetic and infectious diseases. Analysis of DNAs from different populations, including DNA from extinct species, has allowed the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees including primates and humans. PCR is essential to forensics and paternity testing. 
2484 It has had a major impact on molecular biology, medicine, forensics, molecular paleontology, and many related fields. 
2488 Mullis was born in Lenoir, N. Carolina and grew up in Columbia, S. Carolina. He received a B.S. from Georgia Tech and a Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley. While working for Cetus Corporation, he invented PCR, which immediately spread to laboratories around the world where DNA chemistry was performed. PCR technology has grown into a several billion dollar a year industry. For his work, Mullis received the Japan Prize and the Nobel Prize for chemistry, both in 1993. 
1898 2490 Eger V. Murphree  Born Nov 3 1898 - Died Oct 29 1962  Method of and Apparatus for Contacting Solids and Gases Chem Catalytic Cracking
1939 2500 Eger Murphree, former president of Exxon Research & Engineering Co. (ER&E), was one of four Exxon inventors who created the fluid catalytic cracking process.
2502 When ER&E’s’s first commercial cat cracking facility went on-line in 1942, the U.S. had just entered World War II and was facing a shortage of high-octane aviation gasoline. 
2506 This new process allowed the U.S. petroleum industry to increase output of aviation fuel dramatically over the next three years. Fluid cat cracking also aided the rapid buildup of butadiene production. Butadiene was needed for ER&E’s process for making synthetic butyl rubber, a new technology vital to the Allied war effort. 
2510 Murphree was born in Bayonne, New Jersey, moving as a youngster to Kentucky. At Kentucky University, he graduated with undergraduate degrees in chemistry and mathematics in 1920, and then with a master’s degree in chemistry in 1921. After teaching high school and working for several years, in 1930 he joined what was then Standard Oil of New Jersey. From 1947 to 1962, he served as president.
2512 Murphree, who was a member of the committee that organized the Manhattan Project, was widely recognized as a leader in the fields of synthetic toluene, butadiene and hydrocarbon synthesis, fluid cat cracking, fluid hydroforming, and fluid coking. 
1878 2514 Julius Nieuwland  Born Feb 14 1878 - Died Jun 11 1936  Vinyl Derivatives of Acetylene and Method of Preparing the Same Chem Synthetic Rubber
1932 2524 Rev. Julius Nieuwland, C.S.C., was the inventor of the first synthetic rubber, neoprene, manufactured by the DuPont Company. His work with acetylene also led him into a collaboration with scientists from DuPont. Working with them, he found that if monovinylacetylene were treated with hydrogen chloride and the resulting chloroprene polymerized, neoprene would result. Eventually, neoprene was put on the market in 1932 by DuPont under the brand name Duprene. 
2528 Neoprene was considered superior to rubber in many ways such as in its resistance to sunlight, abrasion, and temperature extremes. These properties made it popular in many industries. For instance, neoprene is favored for electrical cable insulation, telephone house-to-house wiring, many moulded, extruded, and sheet products, rug backings, and roofing. 
2532 Nieuwland was born of Flemish parents in Hansbeke, Belgium and immigrated as a youngster with his family to South Bend, Indiana. Nieuwland was a professor at the University of Notre Dame and a priest of the Congregation of the Holy Cross. He graduated from Notre Dame in 1899, studied for the priesthood and was ordained in 1903, and received his Ph.D. from Catholic University in 1904. He taught botany for a number of years at Notre Dame, and in 1918 he became a professor of organic chemistry. During this time, he worked with acetylene; his discovery of a reaction between acetylene and arsenic trichloride eventually led to the development of the poison gas lewisiteused in World War I. 
1833 2534 Alfred Nobel  Born Oct 21 1833 - Died Dec 10 1896  Improved Explosive Compounds Energy Dynamite
1865 2544 Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, was also a great industrialist. In 1863, Nobel developed the Nobel patent detonator, which detonated nitroglycerin using a strong shock rather than heat. In 1865, the Nobel Company built the first factory for producing nitroglycerin. This led to the establishment of many factories around the world.
2546 Nitroglycerin in its fluid state is very volatile. Nobel recognized this, and eventually patented dynamite, a combination of nitroglycerin absorbed by a porous substance. This gave him an easily handled, solid yet malleable explosive. 
2550 Mining, railroad building, and other construction became safer, more efficient, and cheaper. 
2554 Born in Stockholm, Sweden, Nobel moved with his family as a youngster to St. Petersburg where he was tutored privately by leading university professors. After the Crimean War, the family returned to Sweden. Nobel developed many improvements in explosives, and he held 355 patents in different countries in electrochemistry, optics, biology, and physiology. Upon his death, his will provided that the bulk of his fortune go to a fund that would award prizes annually for advancements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. 
1927 2556 Robert N. Noyce  Born Dec 12 1927 - Died Jun 3 1990  Semiconductor Device-and-Lead Structure Comp Integrated Circuit
1959 2566 Robert N. Noyce, cofounder of Intel Corporation, was one of the pioneers of semiconductor development. 
2574 Born in Iowa, he received a B.A. from Grinnell College (Iowa) in 1949 and a Ph.D. in physical electronics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1953. He did research at Philco Corporation until 1956, when he joined Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in Palo Alto, California, to work on transistor technology.
2576 As research director of Fairchild Semiconductor, he was responsible for initial development of the firm's silicon mesa and planar transistor product lines. In 1957 Noyce cofounded the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in Mountain View, California. He was research director until early 1959 when he became vice president and general manager.
2578 In July 1968 he cofounded Intel Corp. with Gordon E. Moore, who had also been a cofounder of Fairchild Semiconductor and a member of the Shockley laboratory staff. Noyce served as president of Intel until 1975 and chairman of the board from 1975 to 1979.
2580 Noyce held 16 patents for semiconductor devices, methods, and structures. 
1926 2582 Kenneth H. Olsen  Born Feb 20 1926  Magnetic Core Memory Comp Magnetic Core Memory
1957 2592 Kenneth H. Olsen, described by Fortune magazine in 1986 as the 'most successful entrepreneur in the history of American business,' invented vital computer components and cofounded Digital Equipment Corporation, developer of the minicomputer. 
2600 Born in Stratford, Connecticut, Olsen began his career working summers in a machine shop. Fixing radios in his basement gave him the reputation of a neighborhood 'Edison.'
2602 After serving in the Navy between 1944 and 1946, he attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he earned a B.S. (1950) and an M.A. (1952) in electrical engineering. During his studies at MIT, the Office of Naval Research of the Air Force recruited Olsen to help build a computerized flight simulator. Also while at MIT he directed the building of the first transistorized research computer.
2604 In 1957, Olsen, along with Harlan Anderson, an MIT colleague, formed the Digital Equipment Corporation with a $70,000 investment from General Georges F. Doriot at the American Research and Development Corporation. Digital began producing printed circuit logic modules used by engineers to test electronic equipment. The company also started developing the world's first small interactive computer.
2606 In 1960 Digital produced the Programmed Data Processor or PDP-1, a computer that used a cathode ray tube monitor. In 1965, after two more generations of PDP computers, Digital brought out the PDP-8, the world's first mass-produced minicomputer. Later, using integrated circuits, the PDP-8/1 proved cheaper and faster than transistor-driven machines. In 1970 Digital produced the PDP-11, which became the most popular minicomputer line in history.
2608 In the 1960s Olsen received patents for a saturable switch, a diode transformer gate circuit, magnetic core memory, and the line printer buffer. 
1811 2610 Elisha Graves Otis  Born Aug 3 1811 - Died Apr 8 1861  Improvement in Hoisting Apparatus Ind Elevator Brake
1854 2620 Elisha Graves Otis didn't invent the elevator, he invented something perhaps more important-the elevator brake-which made skyscrapers a practical reality. 
2624 Otis had no way of knowing that this simple safety device was to alter the face of the globe, that because of it vast cities would spring up toward the sky instead of spreading toward the horizon as in the past. 
2628 Born on a farm near Halifax, Vermont, the youngest of six children, Otis made several attempts at establishing businesses in his early years. However, chronically poor health led to continual financial woes.
2630 Finally, in 1845, he tried to change his luck with a move to Albany, New York. There he worked as a master mechanic in the bedstead factory of O. Tingley & Company. He remained about three years and during that time invented and put into use a railway safety brake, which could be controlled by the engineer, and ingenious devices to run rails for four-poster beds and to improve the operation of turbine wheels.
2632 By 1852 he had moved to Yonkers, New York, to organize and install machinery for the bedstead firm of Maize & Burns, which was expanding. Josiah Maize needed a hoist to lift heavy equipment to the upper floor. Although hoists were not new, Otis' inventive nature had been piqued because of the equipment's safety problem.
2634 If one could just devise a machine that wouldn't fall.... He hit upon the answer, a tough, steel wagon spring meshing with a ratchet. If the rope gave way, the spring would catch and hold.
2636 In 1854 Otis dramatized his safety device on the floor of the Crystal Palace Exposition in New York. With a large audience on hand, the inventor ascended in an elevator cradled in an open-sided shaft. Halfway up, he had the hoisting cable cut with an axe. The platform held fast and the elevator industry was on its way. 
1832 2638 Nicolaus August Otto  Born Jun 10 1832 - Died Jan 26 1891  Gas-Motor Engine Ind Gas-Motor Engine
1876 2648 Engineer Nicolaus August Otto invented the first practical alternative to the steam engine.
2650 Although an earlier patent by French engineer Alphonse de Rochas was found, Otto built the first practical and successful four-stroke cycle engine. 
2654 Because of its reliability, efficiency, and relative quietness, more than 30,000 Otto cycle engines were built in the next 10 years. 
2658 Born in Holzhausen, Germany, Otto built his first gas engine in 1861. Then, in partnership with German industrialist Eugen Langen, they improved the design and won a gold medal at the Paris Exposition of 1867.
2660 In 1876, Otto, then a traveling salesman, chanced upon a newspaper account of the Lenoir internal combustion engine. Before year's end, Otto had built an internal combustion engine, utilizing a four-stroke piston cycle. Now called the 'Otto cycle' in his honor, the design called for four strokes of a piston to draw in and compress a gas-air mixture within a cylinder resulting in an internal explosion. 
1906 2662 Louis W. Parker  Born Jan 1 1906 - Died Jun 21 1993  Television Receiver Video Television
1945 2672 Louis W. Parker invented the intercarrier sound system for television sets, the modern basis for coordinating sound and picture. 
2680 Born in Budapest, Hungary, Parker received his primary and secondary education in Hungary. Following graduation he immigrated to the United States, becoming a naturalized citizen in 1932. After learning English, he studied at the City College of New York. He was honored by Nova University in 1970 with an honorary Doctor of Science degree. Parker first gained publicity in 1929 with a hotel radio system that used low-frequency signals to broadcast over the electric wires within the building. This made it possible to receive noiseless reception with one-tube receivers.
2682 Later he worked on radio direction finders for airplanes and cathode ray oscilloscopes, which led to work on television and closed circuit television systems.
2684 During World War II, Parker designed and manufactured portable radio transmitters for military use. After the war he created the intercarrier sound system still used in all television receivers. Without it television receivers would not work as well and would be more costly.
2686 Among Parker's other inventions was the first color television system using vertical color lines. This made it possible to change from the original three-color dot system to the simpler vertical color-line system. Most of the color television receivers in the world now use this system.
2688 Later he invented electrical instruments operating on somewhat different principles which were greatly superior in performance and which were the basis for the Parker Instrument Corporation. The company was chosen by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to furnish selected instruments for use in the manned Apollo flights to the moon.
2690 Parker received more than 200 United States and foreign patents. 
1913 2692 John T. Parsons  Born Oct 11 1913  Motor Controlled Apparatus for Positioning Machine Tool Tool Numerical Control
1947 2702 John Parsons changed the control of machines and industrial processes from an imprecise craft to an exact science, spawning a second industrial revolution. He brought computers to aircraft design, manufacturing, and real-time management reporting. He developed Numerical Control-produced evaporative patterns to replace weldments with streamlined castings, which revolutionized the production of automobile body dies. 
2710 Born in Detroit, Parsons received the first honorary Doctor of Engineering awarded by a manufacturing engineer by the University of Michigan.
2712 Parsons' accomplishments spanned 60 years of creative problem solving. From his first job as a stamping plant piece-worker and then a tool room apprentice, he sought to affect and improve all phases of manufacturing, from new materials to new ways to settle labor negotiations.
2714 His greatest gift was the invention of numerical control, which grew from his 1947 mating of a milling machine to a punch card system conceived by Frank L. Stulen in 1946. Stulen had adapted an IBM accounting machine to solve design engineering problems associated with the helicopter rotor blades Parsons Corporation was producing.
2716 Parsons also pioneered adhesive bonding in metal aircraft structure then built the first all-composite airplane. His technology revolutionized the production of conventional and controllable-pitch ship propellers. He produced the gigantic fuel lines for the Saturn booster that started the U.S. astronauts toward the moon. 
1822 2718 Louis Pasteur  Born Dec 27 1822 - Died Sep 28 1895  Improvement in Brewing Beer and Ale Ag Pasteurization
1865 2728 French chemist Louis Pasteur was the founder of microbiological sciences. Pasteur's studies of fermentation began in Lille when he was approached by an industrialist disturbed because undesirable products often appeared during the fermentation of sugar into alcohol by yeast. Pasteur postulated that these products came from microscopic organisms other than yeast and suggested that each particular type of fermentation was the effect of a specific microorganism, called the germ. He soon illustrated this revolutionary theory with brilliant studies on the conversion of sugar.
2730 Pasteur claimed that types of microbes could be separated from each other by proper techniques, and could be shown to differ in nutritional requirements and in their susceptibility to antiseptics. He also suggested that just as each type of fermentation was caused by a particular type of germ, so it was with many types of diseases. Pasteur became preoccupied with the origin of microorganisms and demonstrated that each microbe is derived from a pre-existing microbe, and that spontaneous generation does not occur. 
2734 Spoilage of perishable products could be prevented by destroying the microbes already present in these products and by protecting the sterilized material against subsequent contamination. Pasteur applied this theory to the preservation of beverages and foodstuffs, introducing the technique of heat treatment now known as pasteurization. 
2738 Born in Dole, France, Pasteur received his scientific education at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris. He served successively as professor of chemistry in Strasbourg and professor of chemistry and dean of the Lille Faculty of Sciences, which he organized in 1854. Three years later he returned to the Ecole Normale as director of scientific studies, a post he retained until 1867, when he became professor of chemistry at the Sorbonne. 
1915 2740 Charles J. Plank  Born Nov 8 1915 - Died Oct 23 1989  Catalytic Cracking of Hydrocarbons with a Crystalline Zeolite Catalyst Composite Chem Catalytic Cracking
1960 2750 Charles J. Plank and Edward J. Rosinski invented the first zeolite catalyst commercially useful in the petroleum industry for catalytic cracking of petroleum into lighter products such as gasoline. 
2758 Born in Calcutta, India, where his American parents were Methodist missionaries, Plank returned with his family to the United States the following year and subsequently settled in his father's hometown of Lafayette, Indiana. In 1936 he received a B.S. in mathematics, chemistry, and physics from Purdue University. He later earned an M.S., and in 1942 he received his Ph.D., in physical chemistry from Purdue University. He also holds an honorary Doctor of Science degree from Purdue University.
2760 Plank joined the Research Department of Socony-Vacuum Oil Company-the predecessor of Mobil Oil Corporation - in 1941. Practically all of his professional career has been devoted to the field of catalysis. In 1970 he became senior scientist, the highest scientific post, at Mobil's Research and Development Laboratory in New Jersey. His research has led to 83 U.S. patents and several hundred in other countries. 
1910 2762 Roy J. Plunkett  Born Jun 26 1910 - Died May 12 1994  Tetrafluoroethylene Polymers Home Teflon
1949 2772 Chemist Roy J. Plunkett discovered tetrafluoroethylene resin while researching refrigerants at DuPont. Known by its trade name, Teflon, Plunkett's discovery was found to be extremely heat-tolerant and stick-resistant. After ten years of research, Teflon was introduced in 1949. 
2776 Tefloon has become an important coating for everything from satellite components to cookware. 
2780 Born in New Carlisle, Ohio, Plunkett graduated from Manchester College in 1932 with a B.A. in chemistry. He received his master's in 1933 and his Ph.D. in 1936, both from Ohio State University. He has received honorary doctorates from Manchester College, Washington College, and Ohio State. Plunkett joined E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company as a research chemist at the Jackson Laboratory in Deepwater, New Jersey in 1936, and less than two years later made his discovery of Teflon. In 1939 he became a chemical supervisor for the manufacture of tetraethyl lead at the Chambers Works at Deepwater, which was the largest Du Pont plant in terms of employees and product volume and diversity at the time. He continued in administration at the Chambers Works until 1952. Later he directed operations in Du Pont's Freon Products Division. He retired from Du Pont in 1975. After his discovery of Teflon, Plunkett managed research, development, and production efforts that resulted in the creation of numerous new fluorochemical products and processes that have become widely used in the refrigeration, aerosol, electronic, plastics, and aerospace industries. Many are considered to be of critical importance to national defense. 
1922 2782 Robert H. Rines  Born Aug 30 1922  Electric System; Microwave Scanning System; Sound Ranging System Telcom High Resolution Radar and Sonar
1972 2792 Robert H. Rines' contributions to the technology of high-resolution image-scanning radar and sonar began in the era of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Radiation Laboratory with modulation techniques for the Microwave Early Warning System developed secretly during World War II. In peace time, his inventions were basic to high-definition sonar scanning systems used in locating the Titanic and the Bismarck. They are also used in new medical instrumentation allowing noninvasive ultrasound imaging of internal organs. 
2796 His patents underlie nearly all the high-definition image-scanning radar used to provide early-warning, weapons fire-control, and some artillery and missile detection radars during the war in the Persian Gulf. 
2800 Born in Boston, Rines earned a B.S. in physics from M.I.T. After serving as an Army Signal Corps officer, he received a law degree from Georgetown in 1946 specializing in patent law. In 1972 he completed a Ph.D. thesis at Chiao Tung University in the Republic of China.
2802 Rines, who holds more than 60 patents, has also written music for more than 10 Broadway and off-Broadway shows. He has been Gordon McKay Lecturer on Patent Law at Harvard and Lecturer on Invention, Patents, and Innovation at M.I.T. He has served on the Technical Advisory Board of the U.S. Department of Commerce. He founded the Academy of Applied Science stimulating innovation in children and adults and the Franklin Pierce Law Center in New Hampshire. He also helped establish an invention-encouraging patent system in mainland China. In 1972, using the same technology and borrowed cameras, Rines performed a scientific sonar search for the Loch Ness monster; though the images seem to show a large flipper and body, the results were not fully conclusive. 
1933 2804 Heinrich Rohrer  Born Jun 6 1933  Scanning Tunneling Microscope Tool Scanning Tunneling Microscope
1981 2814 Since the invention of the first microscope, scientists have searched for improved ways to explore the microscopic world. Optical systems were limited by the wavelength of light (roughly 2,000 times the diameter of an atom). Later, electron microscopes achieved much higher resolution by taking advantage of the much shorter wavelength of electrons in forming images. The most recent revolution came with Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Karl Binnig's scanning tunneling microscope (STM), invented in 1981, which provided the first images of individual atoms on the surfaces of materials. The STM can image atomic details as tiny as 1/25th the diameter of a typical atom, which corresponds to a resolution several orders of magnitude better than the best electron microscope.
2817 The STM's significance was quickly recognized throughout the world, and it has been used in fields as diverse as semiconductor science, metallurgy, electrochemistry, and molecular biology.
2819 Only five years after Binnig and Rohrer built the first STM, they were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics. Binnig and Rohrer began their STM work at the IBM Zurich Division's Research Laboratory in 1978. 
2823 The Nobel committee said the invention opened up 'entirely new fields...for the study of the structure of matter.' 
2827 Rohrer, born in Buchs, Switzerland, received his degree at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in 1960 and had been with IBM since 1963. 
1921 2829 Edward J. Rosinski  Born Aug 12 1921 - Died May 4 2000  Catalytic Cracking of Hydrocarbons with a Crystalline Zeolite Catalyst Composite Chem Catalytic Cracking
1960 2839 Charles J. Plank and Edward J. Rosinski invented the first zeolite catalyst commercially useful in the petroleum industry for catalytic cracking of petroleum into lighter products such as gasoline. 
2847 Born to immigrant Polish parents on a farm in Gloucester County, New Jersey, Edward J. Rosinski was exposed early in life to crisis problems on the farm, and this is believed to have had a significant influence on his inventive career.
2849 Another influence was his interest in chemistry at Paulsboro High School. While still in high school he decided to become a chemical engineer, and after graduation in 1939 he was employed by the Vacuum Oil Company in the laboratory as a petroleum inspector.
2851 In 1940 Rosinski enrolled at Drexel Institute of Technology Evening College, but his education was interrupted by a 1942-43 enlistment in the U.S. Army Air Force as an aviation cadet. After discharge from the Army, he became an electronics test engineer at RCA and later at Atlas Instrument Company. During this period he studied at Drexel, Temple University, the University of Pennsylvania, and the Radio Electronics Institute.
2853 In 1947 he returned to Socony-Vacuum as a lab technician, resumed his education, and in 1956 received a B.S. in Chemical Engineering at Drexel. In 1972 he was promoted to senior research associate, the company's second-highest scientific post.
2855 Rosinski was inventor or coinventor of 76 U.S. patents, many in the field of zeolite catalytic technology leading to new and improved applications in hydrocarbon conversions. The paper he coauthored with Plank was selected as one of the 12 most important papers published in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry magazine during its 64-year history. 
1917 2857 Benjamin A. Rubin  Born Sep 27 1917  Pronged Vaccinating and Testing Needle Med Pronged Vaccinating Needle
1965 2867 Microbiologist Benjamin A. Rubin ground the eyelet of a sewing machine needle into a fork shape to create a vaccine delivery system that helped wipe out the killer disease smallpox.
2869 Until relatively recently smallpox was a dreaded disease, killing at least two million people annually until 1967. Smallpox could be controlled by vaccination, but the vaccine was always in short supply and, in undeveloped areas of the world, it was difficult to conduct vaccinations.
2871 Rubin was working for Wyeth Laboratories in 1965 when he began experimenting with alternatives to the conventional syringe needle. Further refinements to his ground-sewing-needle design yielded the now-familiar bifurcated (fork-shaped) needle, which he discovered would hold enough vaccine in the small space between the tines to inoculate a person with a few jabs. 
2875 Rubin's needle sped vaccinations worldwide, and in 1980 the World Health Assembly declared smallpox defeated. For the first time in history, man had eradicated a deadly disease. 
2879 Born in New York City, Rubin received his B.S. in biology-chemistry from the College of the City of New York, his M.S. in biology from Virginia Polytechnic Institute, and in 1947, his Ph.D. in microbiology from Yale University. Before joining Wyeth Laboratories, Rubin worked for a number of laboratories and colleges. He is now research professor of microbiology and public health at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine.
2881 Rubin also holds patents in radiation devices, vaccines, steroid chemistry, and microbiology. 
1917 2883 Lewis Hastings Sarett  Born Dec 22 1917 - Died Nov 28 1999  Process of Treating Pregnene Compounds Med Cortisone
1944 2893 Chemist Lewis Hastings Sarett prepared a synthetic version of the hormone cortisone, which was soon demonstrated as an effective treatment against rheumatoid arthritis. Sarett prepared the first synthetic cortisone in 1944, when Merck & Co. was a participant in a government effort to improve military medicine. Four years later the Mayo Clinic demonstrated the efficacy of the product against rheumatoid arthritis.
2895 In 1949, Sarett and several collaborators initiated an alternative synthesis commencing with raw materials derivable from coal, air, lime, and water. This led to the first route independent of naturally occurring starting materials. 
2903 Born in Champaign, Illinois, Sarett received his B.S. from Northwestern University in 1939 and his Ph.D. from Princeton in 1942. That same year he joined Merck Research Laboratories in Rahway, New Jersey, as a research chemist.
2905 Sarett's career at Merck spanned 38 years. He retired in 1982 as senior vice president for science and technology. He was named as primary inventor or a collaborator on approximately 100 technical papers and patents. 
1921 2907 Arthur Schawlow  Born May 5 1921 - Died Apr 28 1999  Masers and Maser Communications System Optics Laser
1960 2917 Arthur L. Schawlow was co-inventor of the laser. He worked with Charles H. Townes, who was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1976. 
2919 Schawlow and Townes were seeking ways to extend the maser principle of amplifying electromagnetic waves into the shorter wavelengths of infrared and visible light. They published a proposal for the laser in a 1958 issue of Physical Review and received a patent for it in 1960. By the end of the 1960s, eye surgeons were already routinely using lasers, taking advantage of the fact that they can be made minutely small and precisely focused. In 1961, Schawlow became professor of physics at Stanford University. It was in 1981 that Schawlow received the Nobel Prize in physics for his work in laser spectroscopy. 
2923 Today, the laser is prevalent in many areas, including the medical, defense and communications fields. 
2927 Schawlow was born in Mount Vernon, New York, and went on to attend the University of Toronto, graduating with a bachelor's degree in physics and mathematics in 1941. During the war, while teaching physics to military personnel at the university, he earned his master's degree. In 1949, Schawlow received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Toronto. While doing postdoctoral research at Columbia University he met Charles Townes, and their long collaboration on microwave spectroscopy began. Schawlow was also a recipient of the Nobel Prize in physics. 
1939 2929 Klaus K. Schmiegel  Born Jun 28 1939  Aryloxyphenylpropylamines Med Prozac
2939 Klaus Schmiegel and Bryan Molloy co-invented a class of aryloxyphenylpropylamines which includes the compound fluoxetine hydrochloride. Fluoxetine hydrochloride is the active ingredient in Prozac®, the widely successful antidepressant.
2941 It was the first commercially available SSRI, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, a chemical that carries messages between nerve calls; it is secreted by one cell and picked up by receptors on another. Once the message is received, a neurotransmitter is retrieved back into the cell that secreted it in a process known as reuptake. Prozac is believed to inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in most patients suffering from depression. 
2945 Since its introduction in the U.S. in 1988, Prozac has revolutionized the treatment of depression. 
2949 Schmiegel was born in Chemitz, Germany, and in 1951 immigrated to Michigan. He received his B.S. in chemistry from the University of Michigan, an A.M. in organic chemistry from Dartmouth College, and a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Stanford University. He joined Eli Lilly in 1968 as a senior organic chemist, remaining there until his retirement in 1993. During his career, he received 18 patents in areas relating to the synthesis of compounds. 
1942 2951 Peter C. Schultz  Born Dec 3 1942  Fused Silica Optical Waveguide; Method of Producing Optical Waveguide Fibers Optics Optical Fibers
2961 Corning Glass researchers Robert Maurer, Donald Keck, and Peter Schultz made optical fiber, capable of carrying 65,000 times more information than conventional copper wire, a practical reality.
2963 In 1970 Maurer, Keck, and Schultz designed and produced the first optical fiber with optical losses low enough for wide use in telecommunications. Previously, the limiting factor was the amount of light lost during transmission. The key was restricting light loss to 20 decibels per kilometer (at least one percent of the light entering a fiber remains after traveling one kilometer). Scientists around the world had worked on the problem for years to no avail.
2965 Optical fiber is the foundation for the global, multimedia telecommunications network of tomorrow. More than 90 percent of the U.S. long-distance traffic is already carried over optical fiber; more than 25 million kilometers has been installed, virtually all of it using the original design of Maurer, Keck and Schultz. 
2969 The discovery by the group at Corning was quickly recognized as a breakthrough, paving the way for the commercialization of optical fiber and literally creating a revolution in telecommunications. 
2973 Schultz was born in Brooklyn, New York, and received a B.S. in 1964 and a Ph.D. in ceramics in 1967 from Rutgers University. He joined Corning in 1967 as a senior ceramicist. He is president of Heraeus Amersil Inc. in Atlanta. 
1925 2975 Robert J. Seiwald  Born Mar 26 1925  Isothiocyanate Compounds and Means of Producing the Same Med Isothiocyanate Compounds (Antigen)
1985 2985 Antibodies are the body's protectors. When antigens, such as bacteria or viruses, enter the body, antibodies from a previous infection or vaccine combine with them and deactivate the invaders.
2987 During the 1950s, as medical researchers came to understand this relationship, it became a priority to identify antigens.
2989 Joseph Burckhalter and Robert Seiwald made an essential contribution to the identification of antigens through the synthesis of fluorescein isothiocyanate, better known as FITC. The first practical and first patented antibody labeling agent, the stable, yellow-green-fluorescent compound has become widely used for rapid, accurate, and economic diagnosis of infectious diseases. 
2993 FITC has played an important role in identifying the cause of AIDS and can be used to distinguish between different strains of streptococci. It has proved infallible in tests for syphilis. FITC and red RITC (rhodamine isothiocyanate) are used together to quickly diagnose leukemia and lymphoma. FITC also paved the way for the development of other labeling procedures, such as radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immosorbent assay (ELISA). 
2997 Born in Columbia, South Carolina, Burckhalter earned a B.S. in chemistry from the University of South Carolina in 1934, an M.S. in organic chemistry from the University of Illinois, Urbana, in 1938, and a Ph.D. in medicinal chemistry from the University of Michigan in 1942. He then worked at Parke-Davis. From a pain-relieving drug now known as Tylenol, he derived, Camoquin, a cure for malaria. Burckhalter was a professor of medicinal chemistry at the University of Michigan from 1960 to 1983. Since 1983 he has been a research professor at Florida Institute of Technology.
2999 Born in Fort Morgan, Colorado, Seiwald served in World War II then he earned his B.S. in chemistry from the University of San Francisco and his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from St. Louis University in 1954. Later that year he joined Burckhalter at the University of Kansas, where they patented FITC and RITC. He was professor of organic chemistry at the University of San Francisco from 1957 until he retired in 1989. 
1898 3001 Waldo L. Semon  Born Sep 10 1898 - Died May 26 1999  Synthetic Rubber-like Composition and Method of Making Same; Method of Preparing Polyvinyl Halide Products Chem Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
1926 3011 In 1926 Waldo Semon, newly employed in the research department at The BFGoodrich Company in Akron, Ohio, decided to pursue a dubious project. Instead of digging into his assigned work, he began trying to dissolve an undesirable material called polyvinyl chloride (PVC) to create an adhesive for bonding rubber to metal.
3013 'People then thought of PVC as worthless back then,' Semon recalled. 'They'd throw it in the trash.'
3015 Semon never succeeded in creating the adhesive, but by heating PVC in a solvent at a high boiling point he discovered a substance that was both flexible and elastic. At first no one literally knew what to make of Semon's newfangled substance, but decades later PVC has become the world's second-best-selling plastic, generating billions of dollars in sales each year. 
3023 Born in Demopolis, Alabama, Semon moved to the Pacific Northwest when he was seven. In 1916 he entered the a University of Washington determined to be a chemist. He graduated cum laude in 1920 then continued his studies at the University of Washington, where he received his Ph.D. in chemistry in 1923.
3025 After a short period as an instructor at the university, Semon joined BFGoodrich. While research director at BFG, Semon provided the technical leadership that fueled the discovery of three major new families of polymeric materials: thermoplastic polyurethane, synthetic 'natural' rubber, and the first oil-resistant synthetic rubbers.
3027 Following his retirement from BFG in 1963 Semon served as a research professor at Kent State University. Based on his belief that young people are the future of the country, throughout his life he assisted local schools in providing science education.
3029 Semon was awarded 116 U.S. patents. 
1931 3031 Gerhard M. Sessler  Born Feb 15 1931  Electroacoustic Transducer Elec Electret Microphone
1962 3041 Gerhard Sessler and James West invented the foil electret microphone while working at Bell Laboratories. This device, which was finalized in 1962, combines high performance features, such as broad frequency range, low noise, and high sensitivity with low cost. Its commercial production began in 1968. Today, almost one billion electret microphones are manufactured annually.
3043 In the 1980s at the University of Darmstadt, Sessler developed the first condenser microphones based on silicon micromachining. 
3047 This innovative technology allows for the fabrication of thousands of tiny microphones on a single silicon wafer. These can be used for hearing aids, hearing implants, and other applications. 
3051 Sessler was born in Rosenfeld, Germany and studied physics at the Universities of Freiburg, Munich, and Goettingen. After receiving his Ph.D. from Goettingen in 1959, Sessler moved to the United States to work at Bell Labs. He stayed at Bell Labs until 1975, when he returned to Germany to become professor of electroacoustics at the University of Darmstadt.
3053 Sessler, who holds over 100 U.S. and foreign patents and is an IEEE Fellow, is the recipient of many awards, including the George R. Stibitz Trophy and the Helmholtz Medal, the highest award of the German Acoustical Society. 
1915 3055 John C. Sheehan  Born Sep 23 1915 - Died Mar 21 1992  Displacement of the Thiazolidine Ring in Penicillin with the Formation of a Biologically Active Cephem System Med Penicillin
1957 3065 Sir Alexander Fleming's 1928 discovery of penicillin in bread mold was a tremendous breakthrough for medical science. Unfortunately, Fleming's process for harvesting the antibiotic took months to generate a small amount. During World War II, as demand for penicillin rose, researchers worked feverishly to synthesize the penicillin molecule. More than a thousand scientists in 39 U.S. labs became involved in the project. But when the war ended and the molecule still had not revealed its structure, the funds for research ended. From 1948 to 1957 only one laboratory of continued the research-John Sheehan's. In March of 1957, while a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sheehan announced the first rational total synthesis of natural penicillin. The next year he reported a general total synthesis of penicillins. 
3073 Born in Battle Creek, Michigan, Sheehan graduated from Battle Creek College and received his master's and Ph.D. degrees in organic chemistry from the University of Michigan. He began a 31-year teaching career at MIT in 1946.
3075 Sheehan's inventiveness extended beyond medical science. At the beginning of World War II, he and W.E. Bachmann of the University of Michigan devised a new and practical method of manufacturing the important military high explosive RDX (cyclonite), which replaced TNT as the basic explosive for rocket, bomb, and torpedo warheads.
3077 In 1953 and 1954 he served as a scientific liaison officer with the American Embassy in London for the Office of Naval Research. He was later a scientific adviser to presidents Kennedy and Johnson.
3079 During his lifetime he was awarded more than 40 patents. 
1930 3081 Patsy Sherman  Born Sep 15 1930  Block and Graft Copolymers Containing Water Solvatable Polar Groups and Fluoroaliphatic Groups Home Scotchgard (TM) Textile Proctector
1968 3091 Chemist Patsy Sherman and colleague Sam Smith were working at 3M Company when they created Scotchgard™. Scotchgard went on to become one of the most widely used and valuable products in stain repellency and soil removal, eventually bringing in over $300 million annually for 3M.
3093 Sherman and Smith teamed up to develop the line of Scotchgard products after an accidental spill of a fluorochemical rubber intended for jet fuel hoses showed resistance to water and oily liquids. After the introduction in 1956 of a stain repellent treatment for wool, they later developed products designed for clothing, household linens, upholstery, and carpeting. Their research culminated in the late 1960s when they developed a product that both repelled stains and also permitted the removal of oily soils from synthetic fabrics, including the newly popular permanent press fabrics. Sherman and Smith jointly hold 13 patents in fluorochemical polymers and polymerization processes. 
3101 Born in Minneapolis, Sherman attended Gustavus Adolphus College in Minnesota. Upon graduating in 1952 with degrees in chemistry and mathematics, she joined 3M and remained there until her retirement in 1992. She has previously been inducted into the Minnesota Inventors Hall of Fame and is a Distinguished Alumna of her college. 
1819 3103 Christopher Sholes  Born Feb 14 1819 - Died Feb 17 1890  Type Writing Machine Tool Typewriter
1873 3113 Christopher Sholes invented the first practical typewriter and introduced the keyboard layout that is familiar today. As he experimented early on with different versions, Sholes realized that the levers in the type basket would jam when he arranged the keys in alphabetical order. He rearranged the keyboard to prevent levers from jamming when frequently used keys were utilized. The rearranged keys in the upper row formed the order QWERTY, and the design exists to this day. 
3121 Sholes was born in Danville, Pennsylvania. As a young teenager, he apprenticed with a printer. Shortly after, he moved to Wisconsin where he worked as a printer, editor, and journalist. Always interested in issues of the day, Sholes served two terms as a Wisconsin senator, another term in the state assembly, and helped found the Republican Party in Wisconsin. Eventually, President Lincoln asked Sholes to become customs collector for the port of Milwaukee.
3123 Sholes enlisted the help of investors to sell his typewriter, but his marketing tactics were not successful. In 1873, he sold his rights to the Remington Arms Company. The company began manufacturing the Remington typewriter, and Sholes continued to devise improvements for it. In 1878, he added a shift key to give users the option of lowercase or uppercase letters. 
1889 3126 Igor I. Sikorsky  Born May 25 1889 - Died Oct 26 1972  Direct-Lift Aircraft; Helicopter and Controls Therefor Ind Helicopter
1939 3136 Igor I. Sikorsky designed the world's first successful multimotor airplane and the world's first true production helicopter. From 1925 to 1940 he created a series of increasingly successful aircraft which gained for America numerous world records for speed, range and payload. The famed Sikorsky flying 'Clippers' helped pioneer trans-Atlantic and trans-Pacific commercial passenger services.
3138 Despite the success of the flying boats, Sikorsky continued studying the helicopter. His U.S. Patent 1,994,488, filed June 27, 1931, marked the crucial breakthrough. In late 1938, United Aircraft management (now Error! Hyperlink reference not valid.) approved his experimental helicopter, and on September 14, 1939, the VS-300 made its first flight. In January 1941 the Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. issued a contract for an observation helicopter designated the XR-4. The new aircraft flew one year later.
3140 Within months of the delivery of the first units, the R-4 established the helicopter's humanitarian tradition of life-saving missions in military and civil emergencies. 
3144 His single-rotor design, a major breakthrough in helicopter technology, remains the dominant configuration today. 
3148 Born in Kiev, Russia, Sikorsky was greatly influenced in contemporary science by his mother, a doctor, and his father, a psychology professor. While still a schoolboy he built several model aircraft and helicopters.
3150 After education in Russia and Paris, Sikorsky first achieved international recognition in 1913 when he designed and flew the first multimotor airplane. After the Russian Revolution he emigrated to the United States and reestablished himself as an aircraft designer. Sikorsky received many other patents, including patents for helicopter control and stability systems. 
1927 3152 Samuel Smith  Born Sep 13 1927  Block and Graft Copolymers Containing Water Solvatable Polar Groups and Fluoroaliphatic Groups Home Scotchgard (TM) Textile Proctector
1968 3162 Chemist Patsy Sherman and colleague Sam Smith were working at 3M Company when they created Scotchgard™. Scotchgard went on to become one of the most widely used and valuable products in stain repellency and soil removal, eventually bringing in over $300 million annually for 3M.
3164 Sherman and Smith teamed up to develop the line of Scotchgard products after an accidental spill of a fluorochemical rubber intended for jet fuel hoses showed resistance to water and oily liquids. After the introduction in 1956 of a stain repellent treatment for wool, they later developed products designed for clothing, household linens, upholstery, and carpeting. Their research culminated in the late 1960s when they developed a product that both repelled stains and also permitted the removal of oily soils from synthetic fabrics, including the newly popular permanent press fabrics. Sherman and Smith jointly hold 13 patents in fluorochemical polymers and polymerization processes. 
3172 Born in New York City, Smith received a B.S. from City College of New York in 1948 and an M.S. from the University of Michigan in 1949. He joined 3M in 1951 and retired as a Corporate Scientist in 1992. He holds 30 U.S. patents and in 1988 won the American Chemical Society's Award for Creative Invention. 
1894 3174 Percy Lebaron Spencer  Born Jul 19 1894 - Died Sep 8 1970  High Efficiency Magnetron Elec Magnetron
1945 3184 Percy Spencer, while working for the Raytheon Company, discovered a more efficient way to manufacture magnetrons. In 1941, magnetrons were being produced at a rate of 17 per day. Spencer set out to create a simpler magnetron that could be mass produced. The result was a magnetron that replaced precision copper bars with lamina and replaced soldered internal wires with a simple solid ring. These improvements and others allowed for the faster production of 2,600 magnetrons per day.
3186 In 1945, Spencer created a device to cook food using microwave radiation. Raytheon saw the possibilities of this, and after acquiring Amana Refrigeration in 1965, was able to sell microwave ovens on a large scale. The first microwave oven was called the Radarange, and today, there are over 200 million in use throughout the world. 
3190 This discovery led to significant advances in radar and his most popular invention, the microwave oven. 
3194 Spencer, born in Howland, Maine, was orphaned at a young age. Although he never graduated from grammar school, he became Senior Vice President and a member of the Board of Directors at Raytheon, receiving 150 patents during his career. Because of his accomplishments, Spencer was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal by the U.S. Navy and has a building named after him at Raytheon. 
1860 3197 Elmer Ambrose Sperry  Born Oct 12 1860 - Died Jun 16 1930  Ship's Gyroscopic-Compass Set Tool Gyroscopic Compass
1896 3207 Elmer Ambrose Sperry invented gyroscope-guided automatic pilots for ships and airplanes that have also been applied to spacecraft.
3209 He began work on gyroscopes in 1896, combining electrical and mechanical elements into gyroscopic compasses and stabilizers for ships and airplanes. His gyroscope-guided autopilot became known as a 'Metal Mike,' the mechanical helmsman.
3211 Sperry also organized the Sperry Electric Mining Machine Company and invented a continuous chain undercutter and an electric mine locomotive. 
3215 Until Sperry's work, the gyroscope was little more than a scientific curiosity. But it was known that a properly mounted gyroscope would always turn to match its plane of rotation with that of the Earth-just as a compass turns to match the Earth's magnetic field. 
3219 Born in Cortland, New York, Sperry completed his formal education at the State Normal and Training School in Cortland and formed the first of his eight companies, the Sperry Electric Company, at the age of 20. In 1890, the Sperry Electric Railroad Company manufactured streetcars in Cleveland, Ohio. His other inventions included a gyroscopic turn indicator (1917), which allowed flying without visual reference to the ground or horizon. He developed high-intensity search lights following World War I and in 1928 invented a device to find transverse fissures in rails, which the American Railway Association called 'one of the most important safety moves in years.' 
1858 3221 William Stanley  Born Nov 28 1858 - Died May 14 1916  Induction Coil / Transformer Elec Alternating Current
1886 3231 In the 1880s every system for distributing electricity used direct current (DC). But DC transmission over long distances was impractical. Transmitting at low voltage required thick wires. Transmitting at high voltage was dangerous and could not be reduced for consumer uses such as lighting. It was known that alternating current (AC) voltage could be varied by use of induction coils, but no practical coil system had been invented. 
3235 Stanley's design for such a coil-or 'transformer' as it is now called-became the prototype for all future transformers. 
3239 Born in Brooklyn, New York, Stanley attended private schools before enrolling at Yale University. He began to study law at age 21 but less than a semester later left school to look for a job in the emerging field of electricity.
3241 Stanley's first job was as an electrician with one of the early manufacturers of telegraph keys and fire alarms. He then worked in a metal-plating establishment before joining Hiram Maxim, inventor of the machine gun and already a pioneer in the electrical industry. As Maxim's assistant, Stanley directed one of the country's first electrical installations, in a store on New York's Fifth Avenue.
3243 Inventor and industrialist George Westinghouse learned of Stanley's accomplishments and hired him as his chief engineer at his Pittsburgh factory. It was during this time that Stanley began work on the transformer. Because of ill health-some say he worked himself too hard- Stanley left Pittsburgh for Great Barrington, Massachusetts. There, in 1886, he demonstrated the first AC system, providing lighting for offices and stores on the town's Main Street.
3245 Stanley established the Stanley Electric Manufacturing Company in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, to make transformers and auxiliary electrical equipment as well as electrical appliances. The company was purchased by General Electric in 1903.
3247 During his lifetime he was granted 129 patents covering a wide range of electric devices. 
1865 3249 Charles Proteus Steinmetz  Born Apr 9 1865 - Died Oct 26 1923  System of Distribution by Alternating Currents Elec Alternating Current
1893 3259 In 1893, Steinmetz joined the newly organized General Electric Company in Schenectady, New York, serving as consulting engineer until his death.
3261 Steinmetz's first important research was on the phenomenon of hysteresis, by which power is lost because of magnetic resistance. This research led him directly to a study of alternating current, which could eliminate hysteresis loss in motors. The difficulty was that there was really no theory of alternating current by which the electrical engineer could be guided. Steinmetz set out to remedy this deficiency. During the next 20 years he prepared a series of masterful papers and volumes which reduced the theory of alternating current to order.
3263 Steinmetz's last research was on lightning, which threatened to disrupt the new AC power lines. Here again he made fundamental contributions. 
3267 Without Charles Steinmetz's development of theories of alternating current, the expansion of the electric power industry in the United States in the early 20th century would have been impossible, or at least greatly delayed. 
3271 Born in Breslau, Germany, Steinmetz early on displayed brilliancy that was to remain with him throughout his life. He received a good primary and secondary education and in 1883 entered the University of Breslau, where he devoured books on every subject from mathematics and economics to literature and medicine. In 1888 he wrote an outspoken editorial criticizing the government, however, and was forced to flee Germany to escape arrest. He went first to Zurich, then, in the late spring of 1889, arrived as a teenage passenger in the United States.
1904 3273 George R. Stibitz  Born Apr 30 1904 - Died Jan 31 1995  Complex Computer Comp Digital Computer
1937 3283 George R. Stibitz is internationally recognized as the father of the modern digital computer. Stibitz's interest in computers arose from an assignment in 1937 to study magneto-mechanics of telephone relays; he turned his attention to the binary circuits controlled by the relays, to the arithmetic operations expressible in binary form, and, in November 1937, to the construction of a two-digit binary adder. The next year, with the help of S.B. Williams of Bell Labs, he developed a full-scale calculator for complex arithmetic. This computer was operational late in 1939 and was demonstrated in 1940 by remote control between Hanover, New Hampshire, and New York. Several binary computers of greater sophistication followed. In these were introduced the excess 3 code, floating decimal arithmetic, self-checking circuits, jump program instructions, taped programs and 'table-hunting' subcomputers.
3293 Born in York, Pennsylvania, Stibitz attended Moraine Park, an experimental school in Dayton, Ohio, and graduated from Denison University in 1926 with a Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics. He received an M.S. from Union College in 1927 and a Ph.D. in physics from Cornell in 1930. Stibitz joined Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1930 and served as a mathematical consultant. From 1940 to 1945 he was on loan to the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development. Following World War II, he was an independent consultant in applied mathematics for various government and industrial agencies. In 1964 he joined the Department of Physiology at Dartmouth Medical School as a research associate. He then worked primarily on applications of physics, mathematics, and computers to biophysical systems. He became a professor in 1966 and professor emeritus in 1970. Stibitz received 34 patents. 
1898 3295 Leo Szilard  Born Feb 11 1898 - Died May 30 1964  Neutronic Reactor / Nuclear Fission Energy Neutronic Reactor / Nuclear Fission
1955 3305 Leo Szilard, along with Enrico Fermi, was awarded a patent for the nuclear fission reactor in 1955. He knew that fission was the key to releasing nuclear energy and after experimenting at Columbia University, he encouraged Fermi, who was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1976, to become involved. On December 2, 1942, in Chicago, they set off the first controlled nuclear chain reaction.
3307 Szilard fully understood the implications of nuclear fission, and it was he who coordinated the letter sent to President Roosevelt from Einstein encouraging the establishment of the Manhattan Project. 
3315 Throughout his lifetime, Szilard made significant contributions to the fields of statistical mechanics, nuclear physics, nuclear engineering, genetics, molecular biology, and political science.
3317 Leo Szilard was born in Budapest, Hungary; during World War I, he was drafted into the Austro-Hungarian army, interrupting his studies at the Budapest Institute of Technology. After the war, he received his doctorate from the University of Berlin. Szilard left Germany during World War II and ultimately came to the United States. 
3319 Very interested in public policy and possessing a strong social consciousness, he also started the movement for the civilian control of atomic energy in 1945. Eventually, he was the one who gained Soviet Premier Khruschev's personal assent to a ""hot line"" between the US and the USSR to prevent nuclear war.Szilard's interests turned to biology after the war, and in 1946, he became a professor of biophysics at the University of Chicago. In 1963, he became a resident fellow at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, a research center he helped create. 
1900 3321 Donalee L. Tabern  Born Jan 27 1900 - Died Dec 31 1974  Thiobarbituric Acid Derivatives Med Pentothal / Anesthesia
1936 3331 Ernest H. Volwiler and Donalee L. Tabern discovered the general anesthetic Pentothal, one of the most important agents in modern medicine. Volwiler and Tabern discovered Pentothal in 1936 when they were seeking a substance which could be injected directly into the blood stream to produce unconsciousness. For three years the two men screened over 200 compounds, eventually arriving at a sulfur-bearing analogue of Nembutal. Induction was smooth, pleasant, free of muscle twitching, and notably lacking in delirium or frightening psychic effects. It could be used for minor procedures requiring anesthesia or for more prolonged procedures, being administered before ether.
3337 As a result of his efforts, Abbott in 1948 became the first pharmaceutical company to supply radio pharmaceuticals to medical and research institutions. The uses of Pentothal are legend. Few agents in medicine have played such an outstanding role in improving the well-being of generations of patients. 
3341 Born in Bowling Green, Ohio, Tabern went on to obtain three degrees from the University of Michigan between 1921 and 1924, including his Ph.D. in chemistry. He joined Abbott Laboratories in 1926 after two years as an instructor at Cornell University.
3343 Tabern, who held a number of patents, worked with Volwiler at Abbott and was associated with many of the company's scientific advances. His early work centered on sleep-producing drugs, resulting in two of the company's classic products, Nembutal and Pentothal.
3345 In 1944 Tabern proposed research on isotopes for clinical uses. He was responsible for Abbott's pioneering work in radio pharmaceuticals. Other fields in which he was involved were vasopressors, curare-like compounds, antimalarials, diuretics, antiseptics, and X-ray diagnostic agents. During World War II he was engaged in work on problems associated with military medicine.
3347 In 1946 he headed a special research department to develop the use of radioactive materials in biology and medicine. 
1856 3349 Nikola Tesla  Born Jul 10 1856 - Died Jan 7 1943  Electro-Magnetic Motor Elec Alternating Current
1888 3359 Nikola Tesla invented the induction motor with rotating magnetic field that made unit drives for machines feasible and made AC power transmission an economic necessity.
3361 In 1887 and 1888 Tesla had an experimental shop at 89 Liberty Street, New York, and there he invented the induction motor. He sold the invention to Westinghouse in July 1888 and spent a year in Pittsburgh instructing Westinghouse engineers.
3371 Born in Smiljan Lika, Croatia, the son of a Serbian Orthodox clergyman, Tesla attended Joanneum, a polytechnic school in Graz and the University of Prague for two years. He started work in the engineering department of the Austrian telegraph system then became an electrical engineer at an electric power company in Budapest and later at another in Strasbourg. While in technical school, Tesla became convinced that commutators were unnecessary on motors; and while with the power company he built a crude motor which demonstrated the truth of his theory. In 1884, Tesla came to the United States and joined the Edison Machine Works as a dynamo designer.
3373 Telsa obtained more than 100 patents in his lifetime. Despite his 700 inventions Tesla was not wealthy. For many years he worked in his room at the Hotel New Yorker, where he died. 
1831 3375 Henry Timken  Born Aug 16 1831 - Died Mar 16 1909  Roller Bearing for Vehicles; Roller Bearing Ind Tapered Roller Bearings
1895 3385 Henry Timken invented the Timken® tapered roller bearing. He found that conventional bearings of the 19th century worked well at reducing friction, but ran into problems when the wheels had to bear heavy loads from the sides, as when vehicles turn. So, in 1895, with the help of his two sons and a nephew, he began experiments to make a better bearing. He developed Timken tapered roller bearings to bear the heavy side loads. 
3389 In the 1920s, The Timken Company was making 90 percent of the country's bearings. By the early 1990s, they supplied nearly a third of the world's tapered roller bearings. 
3393 Born in Bremen, Germany, Timken and his family immigrated to the U.S. when he was seven, settling in Missouri. As a teenager, Timken became an apprentice to a leading carriage and wagon maker. Eventually, he established his own carriage factory in St. Louis. In 1877, Timken converted the factory to make the "Timken Buggy Spring" which was in world demand.
3395 In 1898, he received two roller bearing patents, and in 1899, he established The Timken Roller Bearing Axle Company in a corner of his factory. The company grew so quickly that Timken decided to build a plant and relocate to Canton, Ohio to be near the emerging automotive industry. 
1906 3397 Max Tishler  Born Oct 30 1906 - Died Mar 18 1989  Alloxazines and Isoalloxazinesand Processes for their Production; 2-Sulphanilamido-quinoxaline Med Vitamins
1937 3407 Organic chemist Max Tishler developed methods for synthesizing the essential vitamin B2 as well as a poultry disease antibiotic that opened the door to broad expansion of the poultry industry.
3409 In 1937 he joined Merck & Company Inc., where his first assignment was to find a new process for the synthesis of riboflavin that would permit economical, large-scale production of the essential vitamin (B2). 
3411 Later Tishler and his associates synthesized and developed a production process for sulfaquinoxaline, the first effective antibiotic for the prevention and cure of the poultry disease coccidiosis. Its use as a feed additive permitted broad expansion of poultry production.a>. 
3415 His success, which contributed significantly to human health and nutrition, also led to processes for the practical synthesis of other vitamins. 
3419 Born in Boston, Tishler graduated from Tufts College in 1928 and subsequently earned M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in organic chemistry from Harvard University.
3421 In all Tishler received more than 100 patents relating to medicinal chemicals, vitamins, and hormones during his 33 years in industrial research. He retired from Merck in 1969 to become professor of chemistry and, subsequently, professor of the sciences, emeritus at Wesleyan University
1915 3423 Charles Hard Townes  Born Jul 28 1915  Production of Electromagnetic Energy; Masers and Maser Communications System Optics Laser
1951 3433 Charles Townes' invention of the maser, a device that amplifies electromagnetic waves, created a means for the sensitive reception of communications and for precise navigation. The maser provided basic components of the laser, for which Townes also received a patent.
3435 The difference between a maser and a laser is that the laser utilizes visible light. 
3439 Apart from being useful tools in the laboratory, both masers and lasers have found many applications in radar, communications, astronomy, navigation, atomic clocks, surgery, and industry. 
3443 Born in Greenville, South Carolina, Townes joined the technical staff of Bell Telephone Laboratories Inc. and worked on radar bombing systems during World War II. In 1948 he joined the faculty of   and three years later had the idea that culminated in construction of the maser.
3445 From 1959 to 1961 Townes served as vice president and director of research of the Institute for Defense Analysis in Washington, D.C. He then was appointed provost and professor of physics.  For his advances in the field of quantum electronics, Townes was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize for Physics. 
1905 3447 Charles W. Tyson  Born Mar 14 1905 - Died May 30 1905  Method of and Apparatus for Contacting Solids and Gases Chem Catalytic Cracking
1942 3457 Charles "Wes" Tyson and his three co-inventors at Exxon Research & Engineering Co. (ER&E), called the Four Horsemen, were part of a team responsible for developing fluid catalytic cracking, the process that produces over half the world’s gasoline. They developed the process in 1942, and the first commercial fluid cat cracking facility went on-line on May 25, 1942.
3459 In the 1930s, ER&E was looking for a way to increase the yield of high-octane gasoline from crude oil. Researchers discovered that a finely powdered catalyst behaved like a fluid when mixed with oil in the form of vapor. During the cracking process, a catalyst will split hydrocarbon molecule chains into smaller pieces. These smaller, or cracked, molecules then go through a distillation process to retrieve the usable product. During the cracking process, the catalyst becomes covered with carbon; the carbon is then burned off and catalyst can be re-used. 
3463 Process that produces over half the world’s gasoline 
3467 Tyson was born in Chicago, Illinois. In 1930, after receiving his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in chemical engineering from MIT, he joined ER&E. He served as director of the Petroleum Development Division before his appointment in 1961 as special assistant to the vice president of ER&E. At his retirement in 1962, Tyson held over 50 patents, mainly in the petroleum processing area. 
1893 3469 Ernest H. Volwiler  Born Aug 22 1893 - Died Oct 3 1992  Thiobarbituric Acid Derivatives Med Pentothal / Anesthesia
1936 3479 Ernest H. Volwiler and Donalee L. Tabern discovered the general anesthetic Pentothal, one of the most important agents in modern medicine.
3481 He and Tabern discovered Pentothal in 1936 when they were seeking a substance which could be injected directly into the blood stream to produce unconsciousness. For three years the two men screened over 200 compounds, eventually arriving at a sulfur-bearing analogue of Nembutal. Induction was smooth, pleasant, free of muscle twitching, and notably lacking in delirium or frightening psychic effects. It could be used for minor procedures requiring anesthesia or for more prolonged procedures, being administered before ether. 
3485 The uses of Pentothal are legend. Few agents in medicine have played such an outstanding role in improving the well-being of generations of patients. 
3489 Born in Hamilton, Ohio, Volwiler received his elementary education in the Ohio public school system. He received an A.B. from Miami University in 1914 and from the University of Illinois received an M.A. in 1916 and a Ph.D. in 1918. He also was awarded a number of honorary degrees.
3491 After earning his Ph.D., Volwiler joined Abbott Laboratories. There he became director of research in 1930, was promoted to vice president in 1933, to executive vice president in 1946, to president in 1950, to chairman of the board in 1958, and he became chairman of the board of Abbott Laboratories International in 1959.
3493 Volwiler invented a number of patented drugs. 
1920 3495 An Wang  Born Feb 7 1920 - Died Mar 24 1990  Pulse Transfer Controlling Device Comp Magnetic Core Memory
1965 3505 An Wang made many notable contributions to the advancement of computer technology, including the magnetic pulse controlling device, the principle upon which magnetic core memory is based.
3507 In 1965 he introduced a desktop computer named LOCI. This forerunner of the Wang electronic desk calculators used a keyboard resembling that of an adding machine but offered the user the unique feature of generating logarithms with a single keystroke. Every year since the production of the first LOCI, Wang and Wang Labs engineers have conceived and designed electronic instruments and systems, maintaining a steady progression of innovations in the office automation and information processing field. 
3515 Born in Shanghai, China, Wang came to the United States in 1945. He received his B.S. from Chiao Tung University in Shanghai in 1940 and his Ph.D. in applied physics from Harvard University in 1948. He did postdoctoral work at the Harvard Computation Laboratory. He founded Wang Laboratories in 1951 to develop specialty electronic devices. At his death, he was chairman of the board and chief executive officer of Wang Laboratories, Inc.
3517 Wang held more than 35 patents relating to computer technology. Wang was a member of the Board of Directors of the Bank of Boston and the Massachusetts Board of Regents, was president and a trustee of the Wang Institute of Graduate Studies, and was a trustee of Northeastern University and the Museum of Science of Boston. 
1931 3519 James E. West  Born Feb 10 1931  Electroacoustic Transducer Elec Electret Microphone
1962 3529 In 1962, James West and Gerhard Sessler patented the electret microphone while working at Bell Laboratories. In the electret microphone, thin sheets of polymer electret film are metal-coated on one side to form the membrane of the movable plate capacitor that converts sound to electrical signals with high fidelity. 
3533 The microphone became widely used because of its high performance, accuracy, and reliability, in addition to its low cost, small size, and light weight. Ninety percent of today’s microphones are electret microphones, and they are used in everyday items such as telephones, camcorders, and tape recorders. 
3537 West was born in Prince Edward County, Virginia. While attending Temple University, he interned at Bell Labs during his summer breaks and upon his graduation in 1957, he joined the company and began work in electroacoustics, physical acoustics, and architectural acoustics.
3539 West, who is a Fellow of IEEE and a recipient of the George R. Stibitz Trophy, is the recipient of over 200 U.S. and foreign patents. He is also the leader of a program aimed at minority high school students, encouraging them to experience science with the assistance of mentors at Bell Labs. 
1846 3541 George Westinghouse  Born Oct 6 1846 - Died Mar 12 1914  Improvement in Steam-Power Brake Devices Elec Alternating Current
1869 3551 George Westinghouse invented a system of air brakes that made travel by train safe and built one of the greatest electric manufacturing organizations in the United States.
3553 After briefly attending Union College he returned to his father's shop, where he developed and patented a rotary steam engine, a device for replacing derailed freight cars, and a railroad frog.
3555 He then worked to develop a system of railroad brakes that would centralize control in the hands of the engineer. He was awarded the first of many air brake patents in 1869 and at the age of 22 organized the Westinghouse Air Brake Company. 
3563 Born in Central Bridge, New York, Westinghouse worked in his father's shop until age 15, when he joined the Union Army and served throughout the Civil War. In 1882 he organized the Union Switch and Signal Company, purchasing patents of others and combining them with his own for railroad signals and interlocking switches. In 1886 he founded the Westinghouse Electric Company, foreseeing the possibilities of alternating current as opposed to direct current, which was limited to a radius of two or three miles.
3566 Westinghouse enlisted the services of Nikola Tesla and other inventors in the development of alternating current motors and apparatus for the transmission of high-tension current, pioneering large-scale municipal lighting. His company became the outstanding competitor of General Electric, which in 1896 arranged to use his patents by a cross-licensing agreement. By the turn of the century, the various Westinghouse enterprises had grown to employ more than 50,000 workers. As a result of financial problems, Westinghouse lost control of his electric company in 1907 but remained in control of his other companies until he died. 
1765 3568 Eli Whitney  Born Dec 8 1765 - Died Jan 8 1825  Cotton Gin Ag Cotton Gin
1793 3578 American inventor, pioneer, mechanical engineer, and manufacturer Eli Whitney is best remembered as the inventor of the cotton gin. He also affected the industrial development of the United States when, in manufacturing muskets for the government, he translated the concept of interchangeable parts into a manufacturing system, giving birth to the American mass-production concept. Whitney saw that a machine to clean the seed from cotton could make the South prosperous and make its inventor rich. He set to work at once and within days had drawn a sketch to explain his idea; 10 days later he constructed a crude model that separated fiber from seed.
3580 After perfecting his machine he filed an application for a patent on June 20, 1793; in February 1794 he deposited a model at the Patent Office, and on March 14 he received his patent.
3582 Whitney's gin brought the South prosperity, but the unwillingness of the planters to pay for its use and the ease with which the gin could be pirated put Whitney's company out of business by 1797.
3584 When Congress refused to renew the patent, which expired in 1807, Whitney concluded that 'an invention can be so valuable as to be worthless to the inventor.' He never patented his later inventions, one of which was a milling machine. His genius as expressed in tools, machines, and technological ideas made the southern United States dominant in cotton production and the northern states a bastion of industry. 
3588 The cotton gin gave birth to the American mass-production concept 
3592 Born in Westboro, Massachusetts, Whitney decided in 1783 to get a college education. His own efforts were supplemented by his father's financial help, and after six years preparation he was admitted to Yale College, graduating in 1792. 
1830 3595 Stephen Wilcox  Born Feb 12 1830 - Died Nov 27 1893  Improvement in Steam Generators Tool Steam Generator
1856 3605 Stephen Wilcox worked with George Babcock to invent the water tube steam boiler. This boiler allowed safer and more efficient production of steam. In 1856, Wilcox created a safety water tube boiler with inclined tubes. It was the forerunner of the model he and Babcock patented in 1867. With their new patent in hand, the two men established a partnership which later became the Babcock & Wilcox Company. 
3609 The firm's boilers soon paved the way for the development of high pressure, high temperature power plants for electricity production.
3611 Babcock & Wilcox boilers were also used to power U.S. Navy and Merchant Marine ships, beginning a relationship that continues today. Currently, Babcock & Wilcox is a leader in its industry, designing, supplying, and servicing power generation systems and equipment worldwide. 
3615 Wilcox, who was born in Westerly, Rhode Island, began inventing at a young age and eventually, turned his attention to steam boilers. 
1886 3617 Robert R. Williams  Born Feb 16 1886 - Died Oct 2 1965  Process for Obtaining Vitamins Med Vitamins
1936 3627 Robert R. Williams, Jr., was a telephone company researcher who in his spare time developed ways to synthesize vitamins that helped fight malnutrition and vitamin-deficiency diseases.
3629 The vitamin research was conducted in his spare time with the aid of grants and space provided by Columbia University and others. Williams isolated thiamine in crystalline form in 1933 and synthesized vitamin B two years later. Merck & Company began commercial production of thiamine in 1936. 
3633 Williams' patent, granted in 1942, was a forerunner in the field of chemically reconstructed vitamins.
3635 In addition to his interest in curing Oriental deficiency diseases, Williams was instrumental in the enriching flour, cornmeal, and other cereal grains in this country, wiping out the pellagra and riboflavin deficiency common among poor people. 
3639 Born in Nellore, India, the son of Baptist missionaries, Williams was introduced early in life to the suffering caused by malnutrition. Beriberi, common among rice-eating people in Asia, caused nerve disorders, body swelling, and death.
3641 When he was 10, Williams returned with his family to the United States where the children attended school in Ottawa, Kansas. Williams earned his B.S. (1907) and an M.S. (1908) in chemistry from the University of Chicago.
3643 The East lured him back, however, and Williams taught school in the Philippine Hill country while awaiting a job opening in the Manila Bureau of Science. There he began a 25-year search for a cure for Beriberi. During World War I Williams was recalled to the Washington, D.C., Bureau of Science to work on war projects. To support a wife and family, he took a job with the Bell Telephone Company in New York, where he would serve as chemical director for 20 years. 
1950 3645 Steve Wozniak  Born Aug 11 1950  Microcomputer for Use with Video Display Comp Personal Computer
1977 3655 Wozniak's Apple II personal computer - introduced in 1977 and featuring a central processing unit (CPU), keyboard, floppy disk drive and a $1,300 price tag - helped launch the PC industry. In 1980, just a little more than four years after being founded, Apple went public. 
3659 Helped launch the PC industry. 
3663 All his life, Steve Wozniak has loved projects that require him to think. In sixth grade, he built his own amateur radio station and earned a ham-radio license. At age 13, he built his first computer, and in high school, he was president of the electronics club.
3665 After graduating from Homestead (Calif.) High School in 1968, Wozniak attended the University of California-Berkeley. In the mid-1970's, he designed calculator chips for Hewlett Packard. Then, in 1976, Wozniak and Steve Jobs, also a Homestead grad, founded Apple Computer, Inc. with the Apple I computer. The company, begun as a two-man operation in Jobs' garage, grew to a $500-million-a-year company in six years. Wozniak left Apple in 1981, went back to Berkeley and finished his degree in electrical engineering/computer science. Since then, he has been involved in various business and philanthropic ventures, focusing primarily on computer capabilities in schools, including an initiative in 1990 to place computers in schools in the former Soviet Union.
3667 Wozniak's strong belief in education has prompted him to donate computers and even entire computer labs to schools; servers and Internet access to students; laptops for students and computer training for teachers and students. Wozniak's time now is devoted mostly to his own interests. His belief in hands-on learning and in encouraging freethinking and creativity in youngsters continues to be his driving force. 
1871 3669 Orville Wright  Born Aug 19 1871 - Died Jan 30 1948  Flying-Machine Ind Airplane
1903 3679 Orville and Wilbur Wright, American inventors and aviation pioneers, achieved the first powered, sustained, and controlled flight of an airplane. Wilbur first became interested in the idea of mechanical flight after reading of Otto Lilienthal's successful gliding experiments in Germany. From these studies and observations, the Wrights built their first machine in 1899. It was a biplane kite which they fitted with wings that could be mechanically twisted.
3681 Before attempting a powered flight, they decided to master gliding and built three biplane gliders, which they flew at Kitty Hawk and Kill Devil Hills on the Outer Banks of North Carolina.
3683 They completed their first powered machine, the Kitty Hawk, in 1903, and made history's first powered, sustained and controlled airplane flights from level ground without any assistance at takeoff on the morning of December 17, 1903. In 1908 they were able to conclude an agreement for production of the Wright airplane for the U.S. Army. Wilbur made the first public flight on August 8,1908 in France and continued his exhibition flights there to the end of that year. 
3687 They made history's first powered, sustained and controlled airplane flights from level ground without any assistance at takeoff. 
3691 Wilbur was born in Millville, Indiana; Orville in Dayton, Ohio. They were the sons of a bishop of the Evangelical United Brethren Church. Both completed high school courses, but neither graduated formally.
3693 In 1893 the brothers opened a shop for the sale, repair, and manufacture of bicycles. Income from the shop supported them during the early years of their aeronautical experiments.
3695 Both the brothers died bachelors; aviation had been their only passion. 
1867 3697 Wilbur Wright  Born Apr 16 1867 - Died May 30 1912  Flying-Machine Ind Airplane
1903 3707 Orville and Wilbur Wright, American inventors and aviation pioneers, achieved the first powered, sustained, and controlled flight of an airplane. Wilbur first became interested in the idea of mechanical flight after reading of Otto Lilienthal's successful gliding experiments in Germany. From these studies and observations, the Wrights built their first machine in 1899. It was a biplane kite which they fitted with wings that could be mechanically twisted.
3709 Before attempting a powered flight, they decided to master gliding and built three biplane gliders, which they flew at Kitty Hawk and Kill Devil Hills on the Outer Banks of North Carolina.
3711 They completed their first powered machine, the Kitty Hawk, in 1903, and made history's first powered, sustained and controlled airplane flights from level ground without any assistance at takeoff on the morning of December 17, 1903. In 1908 they were able to conclude an agreement for production of the Wright airplane for the U.S. Army. Wilbur made the first public flight on August 8,1908 in France and continued his exhibition flights there to the end of that year. 
3715 They made history's first powered, sustained and controlled airplane flights from level ground without any assistance at takeoff. 
3719 Wilbur was born in Millville, Indiana; Orville in Dayton, Ohio. They were the sons of a bishop of the Evangelical United Brethren Church. Both completed high school courses, but neither graduated formally.
3721 In 1893 the brothers opened a shop for the sale, repair, and manufacture of bicycles. Income from the shop supported them during the early years of their aeronautical experiments.
3723 Both the brothers died bachelors; aviation had been their only passion. 
1889 3725 Vladimir Kosma Zworykin  Born Jul 30 1889 - Died Jul 29 1982  Cathode-Ray Tube Video Cathode-Ray Tube
1929 3735 Most people think of television as a development of the mid-20th century. But as early as 1929 Russian inventor Vladimir Kosma Zworykin was demonstrating a system with all the features of modern picture tubes.
3737 On November 18,1929, at a convention of radio engineers, Zworykin demonstrated a television receiver containing his 'kinescope,' a cathode-ray tube. 
3741 Zworykin's 'storage principle' is the basis of modern TV. 
3745 Born in Murom, 200 miles east of Moscow, Zworykin at age nine started spending summers as an apprentice aboard the boats his father operated on the Oka River. He eagerly helped repair electrical equipment, and it soon became apparent that he was more interested in electricity than anything nautical.
3747 At the Imperial Institute of Technology, Boris Rosing, a professor in charge of laboratory projects, became friendly with the young student engineer and let him work on some of his private projects. Rosing was trying to transmit pictures by wire in his own physics laboratory. He and his young assistant experimented with a primitive cathode-ray tube, developed in Germany by Karl Ferdinand Braun.
3749 In 1910 Rosing exhibited a television system, using a mechanical scanner in the transmitter and the electronic Braun tube in the receiver.
3751 The lure of theoretical physics drew Zworykin to Paris after he graduated with honors and a scholarship in electrical engineering in 1912. There he studied X-rays under Paul Langevin. Arriving in the United States in 1919, he soon joined the staff at the Westinghouse laboratory in Pittsburgh.
3753 In 1929, Zworykin joined the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) in Camden, New Jersey. As the director of their Electronic Research Laboratory, he was able to concentrate on making critical improvements to his system.