Modified Matter Session 2 - 1800's from Duponts to Rayon

1800 E.I DuPont immigrates to Delaware to flee French revolution; 1044 Gunpowder in China, to Europe via Arabs and Mongols by 1260

1775 Black powder fog of war Bunker Hill battle; 1802 DuPont Co. at Eurethian Mills on Brandywine

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1800's Animal fats for soap and tallow for candles: 1806 Colgate NY; 1823 Chevrul France fatty acid and soap chemistry

1837 Procter and Gamble founded Cincinnati; 1879 Ivory soap; 1820's-40's California hide and tallow trade

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1823 MacIntosh use of latex rubber for waterproofing; 1839-44 Charles Goodyear vulcanizes rubber to improve use in hot and cold

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1840's Gutta Pecha for telegraph cable and other electric insulation; 1876 Rubber trees from Amazon to S. Asia plantations; 1889 John Dunlop pneumatic tire

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1825 Nicephore Niepce 1st photograph in France, light sensitive exposure on plate, early camera; internal combustion engine; 1830's Niepce Daguerre partners

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1833+ Daguerre silver coated copper plate photo; 1838 Regnault pyrogallic acid, paper negatives, PVC experiments

1841Talbott UK calotype; 1846 Shonbein guncotton, nitrocellulose explosive, collodion coating for photo, surgery; 1850 Archer Collodial photo process

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1855 Alexander Parkes electroplating to Hancock vulcanize to 1862 thermoset plastic Parkesine; waterproof; Spill patent dispute

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1872 John Wesley Hunt US celluloid success billiard ball; factory, nitrocellulose; explosive threat, product and dry photo markets

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1700's Colonial natural dyes; 1834 Aniline to Indigo; 1843 Hoffmann coal tar aniline link; 1856 Perkin quinine to mauve dye

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1857+ Coal Tar Dyes 1st Great Chemical Industry: Perkin factory 1858 mauve, 1870 alizarin, 1879 anthracene; 1880+ German Swiss dominance

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1709 Abraham Derby rebuilds Coalbrooke furnace, shifts to coke from coal for more intense heat and control; 1778 Steel rails; 1781 Severn Iron Bridge

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1847 William Kelly hot air blast to control carbon in Kentucky converter; 1855 Bessemer UK converter patent;

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1868 Siemens Open Hearth complement to Bessemer converter; 1860's other metals alloyed in steel for superior qualities

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1885+ Carnegie Frick consolidate US steel industry; 1890+ Great Lakes Iron Ore shipments; 1900's Open hearth to Basic Oxygen to Electric arc furnaces

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1853 George Bissell, W. PA Rock Oil co.; 1857 Fractional distillation of oil by Silliman's at Yale

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1858 Edwin Drake to Titusville to drill for rather than mine oil; 1859 Aug success; Boom and bust Oil City; 1870's Rockefeller consolidates for kerosene

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1830's Humphrey Davy laughing gas anesthetic effects; 1842 Crawford Long diethyl ether surgery; 1861-65 Civil War ether, chloroform anesthetics

1847 Nitroglycerine synthesized in Turin by Pelouze, warns of explosive danger; 1867 Nobel dynamite explosive s controlled by chemical absorbents

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1830's Michael Faraday: 1831 Electromagnetic Induction; 1834 Electrolysis; 1870's Thomas Edison Electric lighting, distribution

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1886 Charles Martin Hall and Paul Heroult independently smelt and purify aluminum by electrolysis, 1888 Alcoa and 1889 Swiss Alcan

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1878 UK Swan electric bulb, Edison joint venture; 1871 Swan nitrocellulose plastic leads to dry photo development, 1878 film transfer shade range

1890 George Eastman perfects Kodak Brownie camera; 1890's Eastman and Edison develop motion picture kinetoscope

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1890's George Eastman; Celluloid film; AD Little cellulose acetate film for Kodak Brownie; Lumiere Brothers motion picture producers

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1889 Cellulose polymer fiber from Egypt parchment to 0 Han China paper, 1700+ newsprint, 1850 celluloid; Plant cell wall material to microfibril cellulose molecules, chemical glucose polymers; 1870's Chardonnet France with Pasteur on silk worm blight, accidental spill to nitrocellulose as artificial silk

1880's production and extrusion processes to replicate plant cell walls. 1889 intro Paris exhibition, flammable

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1891 Rayon yarn from 1855, 1894 Cross viscose stable

 

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1905 Courtaulds, 1910 American viscose Marcus Hook PA

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