Technology Breakthrough Highlights and Energy From 1776

Before Industrial Revolution (1776) energy was wind, water and muscle

Technology added little: friction reduction (wheel); leverage (oar, ramp, screw)

Companies didn’t exist before Adam Smith Wealth of Nations

Strategy and Policy related to individuals, families, not companies

Industrial Revolution and Empire realignments in England in 1700’s

England gained (1763) and lost (1783) N. America, gained India (1763), fought French

England stripped forests, forced to change to coal to heat, work metals

1705 Newcomen (Hero to Savery) steam engine to pump water from coal mines, very inefficient

English inventors in textiles: 1733 Kay flying shuttle for weaving

1764 Hargraeves spinning jenny for yarn

1771 Arkwright water frame; 1779 Crompton mule; 1785 Cartwright power loom

Watt perfected Newcomen engine; efficiency, added separate condenser.

Boulton and Watt business, Murdoch added, Arkwright successful with mill expansions on waterframe

Boulton, Watt, Arkwright, Cartwright prove 1776 Adam Smith Wealth of Nations

Steam engine for metals, but major innovation is textiles after Crompton mule

Steam added to transport: Coal cars on tracks in mines; canals for surface; 1801 Trevithick steam engine on track

Rise of US: Independence; Washington; Hamilton business policies, free trade vs. protectionism

1791 Brown and Slater illustrate business men, inventor or production synergy

1793 Eli Whitney invents cotton gin, patent protection cost problems lead to disillusion

1803 interchangeable parts (Blank Paris 1790), musket government contract, congressional demonstration, manufacturing problems.

Whitney behind rise and fall of cotton economy of South, industrial power of North

Oliver Evans steam motor vehicle dredge, automated mill, neither Evans or Whitney build large organizations

Transportation in US powered by steam

1807 Fulton steamboat after Fitch, Ramsey, Washington, greatest success on Mississippi from 1820’s

1825 Erie Canal makes NY Empire state, limits New Orleans river natural advantage

1828 England and US shift to rail in NJ, Baltimore, S.Carolina, Evans motor vehicle approach doomed by road lack

Enormous prewar rail expansion helped north with E-W not N-S network

Vanderbilt and railroad robber barons, Judah transcontinental dream, 1969 Big 4 Promentory triumph


Electricity emerges from mystery to science to energy: Franklin, Volta, Henry, Davenport, Edison, Tesla

1752 Franklin kite experiment; 1800 Volta, Galvanni Storage; 1830’s Faraday ring, electromagnetic, Davenport ring

1844 Telegraph importance to railroad operations, signals, Samuel Morse

1860’s CGO as distribution hub, McCormick reaper, wood, stockyards from 1865

1859 Drake oil in Titusville, Rockefeller process business, kerosene illuminating until auto in 1900. Lanterns from colonial times for light, Franklin Phil, 1792 Murdoch gas light, 1816 Balt st lights (PubUtilities)

Coal or town gas as source of gas for lighting, byproduct of coke, whale oil

1870’s iron ore, coal, limestone to steel in Pittsburgh, technology Bessemer, skyscrapers, rails, rr cars, autos in 1900

1876 Phil Centennial Fair, Bell telephone introduced

Rise of Edison who developed incandescent bulb. Rise of electric power and distribution AC or DC

Competition of Edison and Tesla/Westinghouse, AC vs DC, settled at 1893 Chicago Fair

Automobile from Daimler-Benz Germany, individual luxury to Henry Ford, assembly line (reverse of stockyards)

1908-27 Ford Model T, mass market low price, enormous mkt share over 50%, $5 day, triumph of indiv transport, gasoline

Coincidence of spindletop and other large oil finds, electric and steam lose in autos. Sloan brings professional management to GM.

Marconi, Fessenden, de Forest, Armstrong as broadcasting radio pioneers after 1900

Sarnoff as business focus, develops TV in 1930’s, despite Farnsworth SF in 1920’s

From Perkin mauve dye in 1880’s to Hunt and Hyatt early plastics, 1907 Baekeland bakelite hard plastic

Petrochemicals in 1920’s to Carouthers neoprene and nylon in 1930’s DuPont-GM

Air and Ocean Transportation Revolutionized as motor Vehicles Replace Railway Dominence

Air transport: Trippe, DC3, Whittle jet engine, Boeing jets and air growth

Commercial Aviation Jet Transport, Ocean Shipping Containerization


Computers Dominate Electronic Technology Based on Transistors and Microprocessors,

1820’s Babbage, Ada Lovelace, Jacquard to 1880’s Hollerith, Burroughs and Watson from IBM


1947 ENIAC after ordinance calculations, 1947 Shockley Bardeen Brittain transistor Bell Labs

1950’s IBM move to computer dominance after scare of census bureau, 7 others, then DEC and minis

1959 Noyce Kilby semiconductor, 1969 Noyce Huff microprocessor, 1979 PC Apple, IBM others, Mouse, GUI

Internet, E Business, Biotech and Genetic Engineering

1953 Crick and Watson discover DNA, 1975 Swanson and Boyer found Genentech, 2000 Ventor decodes human genome